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中华人民共和国民事诉讼法 法律对照

Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China

Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China

(Adopted on April 9, 1991 at the Fourth Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress, and revised according to the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Amending the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China as adopted at the 30th Session of the Standing Committee of the 10th National People’s Congress)

Table of Contents

Part One General Principles

Chapter 1 Purposes, Scope of Regulation and Basic Principles

Chapter 2 Jurisdiction

Section 1 Jurisdiction by Levels of Courts

Section 2 Territorial Jurisdiction

Section 3 Jurisdiction by Transfer and Jurisdiction by Designation

Chapter 3 Trial Organization

Chapter 4 Recusal of Adjudicating Personnel

Chapter 5 Litigation Participants

Section 1 Parties

Section 2 Litigation Representatives

Chapter 6 Evidence

Chapter 7 Time Periods and Service

Section 1 Time Periods

Section 2 Service

Chapter 8 Mediation

Chapter 9 Property Preservation and Advance Enforcement

Chapter 10 Compulsory Measures against Obstruction of Civil Actions

Chapter 11 Litigation Expenses

Part Two Trial Procedure

Chapter 12 Ordinary Procedure of First Instance

Section 1 Filing and Accepting Lawsuits

Section 2 Pretrial Preparation

Section 3 Courtroom Trial

Section 4 Lawsuit Suspension and Conclusion

Section 5 Judgments and Rulings

Chapter 14 Procedure of Second Instance

Chapter 15 Special Procedure

Section 1 General Stipulations

Section 2 Cases Concerning the Credentials of Voters

Section 3 Cases Concerning the Declaration of Missing or Dead Persons

Section 4 Cases Concerning the Determination of Citizens’ Capacities in Civil Conducts

Section 5 Cases Concerning the Determination of Ownerless Property

Chapter 16 Procedure of Adjudication Supervision

Chapter 17 Summary Procedure for Collecting Debts

Chapter 18 Procedure of Public Summon

Part Three Procedure of Enforcement

Chapter 19 General Stipulations

Chapter 20 Application and Referral of Enforcement

Chapter 21 Enforcement Measures

Chapter 22 Suspension and Termination of Enforcement

Part Four Special Provisions of the Civil Procedures Involving Foreign Elements

Chapter 23 General Principles

Chapter 24 Jurisdiction

Chapter 25 Service and Time Periods

Chapter 26 Property Preservation

Chapter 27 Arbitration

Part One General Principles

Chapter 1 Purposes, Scope of Regulation and Basic Principles

Article 1 The Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China is formulated according to the Constitution and in the light of the experience and actual conditions of adjudicating civil cases in our country.

Article 2 The purposes of the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China are to protect the litigation rights exercised by the parties, to ensure that the people’s courts find facts, to distinguish right from wrong, to apply the law correctly, to try civil cases promptly, to affirm the rights and obligations in civil affairs, to impose sanctions for civil wrong doings, to protect the lawful rights and interests of the parties, to educate citizens to voluntarily abide by the law, to maintain the social and economic order, and to guarantee the smooth progress of the socialist construction.

Article 3 The provisions of this Law shall apply to all the civil litigation accepted by people’s courts regarding disputes over the status of property and personal relations among citizens, legal persons, or other organizations respectively and mutually between citizens, legal persons, or other organizations.

Article 4 All those who involve in civil lawsuits within the territory of the People’s Republic of China must abide by this Law.

Article 5 Foreign nationals, stateless persons, foreign enterprises, or organizations, which initiate or respond to lawsuits in people’s courts, shall have the same litigation rights and obligations as the citizens, legal persons, or other organizations of the People’s Republic of China.

Should the courts of a foreign country impose restrictions on the civil litigation rights of the citizens, legal persons, or other organizations of the People’s Republic of China, the people’s courts of the People’s Republic of China shall follow the principle of reciprocity regarding the civil litigation rights of the citizens, enterprises, or organizations of that foreign country.

Article 6 The adjudication authority over civil cases shall be exercised by the people’s courts only.

The people’s courts shall adjudicate civil cases independently according to law, and shall not be subject to any interference from an administrative organ, public organization, or individual.

Article 7 The people’s courts must take the facts as the basis and take the law as the criterion when adjudicating civil cases.

Article 8 All parties to a civil litigation shall have equal litigation rights. The people’s courts shall, when adjudicating civil cases, guarantee and facilitate all parties to exercise their litigation rights, and apply the law equally to all parties.

Article 9 When adjudicating civil cases, the people’s courts may mediate the disputes according to the principles of voluntariness and lawfulness; if a mediation agreement can not be reached, the courts shall render judgments without delay.

Article 10 When adjudicating civil cases, the people’s courts shall apply the systems of collegial panel, recusal, public trial, and “two trials and the second one is final”.

Article 11 Chinese citizens of all ethnicities shall have the right to use their native spoken and written languages in civil proceedings.

In the areas where an ethnic minority is concentrated or a number of different ethnic nationalities live together, the people’s courts shall conduct hearings and publish legal documents in the spoken and written languages commonly used by these people.

The people’s courts shall provide translations for any litigation participants who are not familiar with the spoken or written languages commonly used by the local people.

Article 12 When adjudicating civil cases by the people’s court, the parties shall have the right to engage in argument.

Article 13 The parties to a civil litigation shall be entitled, within the scope stipulated by law, to dispose their rights of civil affairs and litigation.

Article 14 The people’s procuratorates shall have the right to exercise legal supervision over the civil proceedings.

Article 15 If the civil rights and interests of the state, a collective, or an individual have been infringed, a state organ, public organization, enterprise, or institution may support the injured unit or individual to initiate legal action in a people’s court.

Article 16 The People’s Conciliation Committees are the organizations for mass to mediate civil disputes derived from private citizens under the guidance of basic people’s governments and the basic people’s courts.

The People’s Conciliation Committees shall conduct all mediations according to legal provisions and the principle of voluntariness. All concerned parties shall enforce mediation agreement. Where any concerned parties refuse mediation, fail to reach a mediation agreement, or retract a mediation agreement, they may initiate legal proceedings in a people’s court.

If a People’s Conciliation Committee violates the law when mediating civil disputes, the people’s court shall correct it.

Article 17 The people’s congresses of the national autonomous areas may formulate some accommodating or supplementary provisions according to the principles of the Constitution and this Law and based on the specific circumstances of their localities. Such provisions made by an autonomous region shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for approval. The provisions made by an autonomous prefecture or autonomous county shall be submitted to the standing committee of the people’s congress of the relevant autonomous region or province for approval and to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for the record.

Chapter 2 Jurisdiction

Section 1 Jurisdiction by Levels of Courts

Article 18 A basic people’s court shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over civil cases, unless otherwise stipulated in this Law.

Article 19 An intermediate people’s court shall have jurisdiction as courts of first instance over the following civil cases:

(1)Major cases involving foreign elements;

(2)Cases that have major impacts in the area of its jurisdiction; and

(3)Cases under the jurisdiction of the intermediate people’s courts as determined by the Supreme People’s Court.

Article 20 A higher people’s courts shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over civil cases that have major impacts on the areas of its jurisdiction.

Article 21The Supreme People’s Court shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over the following civil cases:

(1)Cases that have major impacts on the whole country; and

(2)Cases that the Supreme People’s Court deems should be adjudicated by itself.

Section 2 Territorial Jurisdiction

Article 22 A civil lawsuit brought against a citizen shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has his domicile; if the defendant’s domicile is different from his habitual residence, the lawsuit shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place of his habitual residence.

A civil lawsuit brought against a legal person or an organization shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has its domicile.

Where the domiciles or habitual residences of several defendants in the same lawsuit are in the areas under the jurisdiction of two or more people’s courts, all of those people’s courts shall have jurisdiction over the lawsuit.

Article 23 The civil litigations described below shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the plaintiff has his domicile; if the plaintiff’s domicile is different from his habitual residence, the lawsuit shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’ court located in the place of the plaintiff’s habitual residence. The relevant civil litigations are:

(1)Litigations concerning the status of persons who do not reside within the territory of the People’s Republic of China;

(2)Litigations concerning the status of persons whose whereabouts are unknown or whom have been declared missing;

(3)Litigations brought against the persons who are undergoing reeducation through labor; and

(4)Litigations brought against persons who are in imprisonment.

Article 24 A lawsuit brought about a contract dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has his domicile or where the contract is performed.

Article 25 The parties to a contract may, through the written contract, choose a people’s court, which located in the place where the defendant would have his domicile, the contract would be performed, the contract would be signed, the plaintiff would have his domicile, or the subject of the contract would be located, to have jurisdiction over the case, as long as this jurisdiction choice does not violate the provisions of this Law regarding the Jurisdiction by Level and the Exclusive Jurisdiction.

Article 26 A lawsuit brought for insurance contract dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has his domicile or where the insured subject matter is located.

Article 27 A lawsuit brought for a negotiable instrument dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the negotiable instrument is to be paid or where the defendant has his domicile.

Article 28 A lawsuit brought for a dispute over transportation contract via railway, highway, water, air, or combined transportation shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place of the departure or the destination, or where the defendant has his domicile.

Article 29 A lawsuit brought for a tortious act shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the infringing act took place or where the defendant has his domicile.

Article 30 A lawsuit to claim damages caused by a railway, highway, water, or aviation transportation accident shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the accident took place, where the vehicle or ship first arrived after the accident, where the aircraft first landed after the accident, or where the defendant has his domicile.

Article 31 A lawsuit brought for damages caused by a ship collision or any other maritime accident shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the collision took place or where the collision ship first docked after the accident or where the ship at fault was detained, or where the defendant has his domicile.

Article 32 A lawsuit brought for a maritime salvage shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the salvage took place or where the salvaged vessel first docked after the disaster.

Article 33 A lawsuit brought for a general average shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the ship first docked after the general average adjustment took place or the adjustment thereof was conducted or where the voyage ended.

Article 34 The following cases shall be under the exclusive jurisdiction of the people’s courts herein specified:

(1)A lawsuit brought for real estate shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the real estate is located;

(2)A lawsuit concerning harbor operations shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the harbor is located; and

(3)A lawsuit concerning an inheritance shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the decedent had his domicile upon his death, or where the principal portion of his estate is located.

Article 35 When two or more people’s courts have jurisdiction over a lawsuit, the plaintiff may bring his lawsuit in one of these people’s courts; if the plaintiff brings the lawsuit in two or more people’s courts that have jurisdiction over the lawsuit, it shall be handled by the people’s court that accepts the case first.

Section 3 Jurisdiction by Transfer and Jurisdiction by Designation

Article 36 If a people’s court discovers that a case it has accepted is not under its jurisdiction, it shall transfer the case to the people’s court that does have jurisdiction over the case. The people’s court to which a case has been transferred shall accept the case, and if it considers that, according to relevant regulations, the transferred case is not under its jurisdiction, it shall report to a superior people’s court for the designation of jurisdiction and shall not transfer the case to another people’s court without authorization.

Article 37 If a people’s court which has jurisdiction over a case is unable to exercise the jurisdiction for a special reason, the superior people’s court shall designate another court to exercise the jurisdiction.

If there is a dispute over a jurisdiction among people’s courts, it shall be resolved by the disputing parties through consultation; if the dispute cannot be resolved through consultation, the disputing courts shall ask their superior people’s court to designate the jurisdiction.

Article 38 If a party rejects the jurisdiction of his case after the case was accepted by a people’s court, the party shall raise the rejection during the period for submitting briefs. The people’s court shall examine such objection. If the objection is tenable, the people’s court shall rule that the case be transferred to the people’s court that does have jurisdiction over the case; if the rejection is untenable, the people’s court shall overrule the objection.

Article 39 People’s courts at higher levels shall have the authority to try civil cases over which people’s courts at lower levels have jurisdiction as courts of first instance; they may also transfer civil cases over which they themselves have jurisdiction as courts of first instance to people’s courts at lower levels for adjudication.

If a people’s court at a lower level deems it necessary for a civil case of first instance under its jurisdiction to be tried by a people’s court at a higher level, it may request such a people’s court to adjudicate the case.

Chapter 3 Trial Organization

Article 40 Civil cases of first instance shall be tried in a people’s court by a collegial bench consisting of both judges and assessors or of judges alone. The numbers of members of a collegial bench shall be odd.

Civil cases to which summary procedure is applied shall be tried by a single judge alone.

When carrying out their duties as assessors, the assessors shall have equal rights and obligations as the judges.

Article 41 Civil cases of second instance shall be tried in a people’s court by a collegial bench of judges. The numbers of members of a collegial bench shall be odd.

For the retrial of a remanded case, the people’s court of first instance shall form a new collegial bench according to the procedure of first instance.

If a case for retrial was originally tried at first instance, a new collegial bench shall be formed according to the procedure of first instance; if the case was originally tried at second instance or was removed to a people’s court at a higher level for trial, a new collegial bench shall be formed according to the procedure of second instance.

Article 42 The president of the court or the chief judge of a division shall designate a judge to serve as the presiding judge of the collegial bench; if the president or the chief judge participates in trial, he himself shall serve as the presiding judge.

Article 43 When deliberating a case, a collegial bench shall observe the principle of minority obeying majority. The deliberations shall be recorded in writing, and the transcript shall be signed by the members of the collegial bench. The dissenting opinions in the deliberations shall be truthfully recorded in the transcript.

Article 44 The adjudicating personnel shall handle the case impartially and according to law.

The adjudicating personnel shall not accept a treat or gift from the parties or their agents.

Any adjudicating personnel who commits embezzlement, accepts bribes, practices favoritism for himself or relatives, twists the law in rendering judgment shall be investigated for legal responsibility; if a crime is committed, the offender shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law.

Chapter 4 Recusal of Adjudicating Personnel

Article 45 Any member of the adjudicating personnel in any of the following circumstances shall be disqualified, and the litigation parties shall also have the right to request, orally or in writing, such an adjudicator to be withdrawn from this case. The relevant circumstances are:

(1)He is a party or a near relative of a party or a near relative of a litigation representative to the case;

(2)He has a personal interest in the case; or

(3)He has some other relationship with a party to the case, which could influence the impartial adjudication.

The above provisions shall also apply to clerks, interpreters, expert witnesses, and examiners.

Article 46 When a party makes a request to disqualify an adjudicator, he shall make an explanation and submit the request at the beginning of the proceedings; a request for recusal may also be submitted before the end of court debate if the recusal reason is uncovered after the proceeding begins.

If a recusal decision is waiting for a people’s court to decide, the personnel who have been requested to be disqualified shall temporarily be suspended from participating in the proceedings, but with the exception of cases that require emergency measures.

Article 47 The recusal of a court president who serves as the presiding judge shall be decided by the adjudicating committee; the recusal of adjudicators shall be decided by the court president; the recusal of other personnel shall be decided by the presiding judge.

Article 48 The decision of a people’s court on a request for recusal shall be made orally or in writing within three days after the request was made. If a party is not satisfied with a recusal decision, it may apply for reconsideration once. During the period of reconsideration, the personnel who have been requested to be disqualified shall not be suspended from participating in the proceedings. The decision of a people’s court on an application for reconsideration shall be made within three days after receiving the application and the person who has made the application for reconsideration shall be notified of the decision.

Chapter 5 Litigation Participants

Section 1 Parties

Article 49 Any citizen, legal person or any other organization may become a party to a civil lawsuit.

Legal persons shall be represented by their legal representatives in litigation. Other organizations shall be represented by their principal leading personnel in litigation.

Article 50 The parties shall have the right to appoint representatives, request recusals of adjudicating personnel, collect and provide evidence, engage in debate, request mediation, file an appeal, and apply for an enforcement of judgments.

The parties may consult the materials relating to the court proceedings of the case and copy the materials and other legal documents pertaining to the case. However, materials involving state secrets, trade secrets, or the private affairs of individuals shall be exceptions.

The parties must exercise their litigation rights according to the law, observe litigation procedures and carry out legally effective written judgments or orders and mediation statements.

Article 51 The two parties may reach a settlement agreement on their own.

Article 52 The plaintiff may relinquish or modify his claim. The defendant may confirm or repudiate the claim and shall have the right to file a counterclaim.

Article 53 When one party or both parties consist of two or more persons and the subject matter of the action is the same or under the same category, the people’s court may adjudicate them together upon the consent of all the parties. Such adjudication is called joint litigation.

If a party of two or more persons of a joint litigation who have the common rights and obligations with respect to the subject matter of action and the act of any of them is recognized by the others of the party, such an act shall bind the rest of the party; if a party of two or more persons have no common rights and obligations with respect to the subject matter of action, any acts taken by any one of them shall not bind the rest of the party.

Article 54 A joint litigation in which one party has numerous litigants may be brought by the representatives elected by the litigants of the party. The act of litigation taken by these representatives shall bind all litigants of the party whom they represent. However, any substitution of representatives, relinquishing claims, acceptance of claims of the opposing party, or negotiating settlement shall be approved by the litigants of the party.

Article 55 Where the subject matters of an action is under the same category and one of the parties has numerous litigants but the exact number of the litigants is uncertain when the lawsuit is filed, the people’s court may issue a public notice to explain the nature of the case and the claims of the litigation and informing those interested persons who are entitled to the claim to register their rights with the people’s court within a fixed period of time.

Those who have registered their rights with the people’s court may elect representatives from among themselves to proceed with the litigation; if the election fails its purpose, such representatives may be determined by the people’s court through consultation with those who have registered their rights with the court.

The acts of litigation taken by these representatives shall bind all litigants of the party whom they represent. However, any substitution of representatives, relinquishing claims, acceptance of claims of the opposing party, or negotiating settlement shall be approved by the litigants of the party.

The judgments or written orders rendered by the people’s court shall bind all those interested persons who have registered their rights with the court. Such judgments or written orders shall apply to those who have not registered their rights but have instituted legal proceedings during the time of the statute of limitation.

Article 56 If a third party considers that he has the independent right to claim the subject matter of the action of both parties, he shall have the right to bring an action.

If a third party does not have the independent right to claim the subject matter of the action of both parties but the outcome of the case will affect his legal interest, it may file a request to join the litigation or the people’s court may notify him to join the litigation. If a people’s court holds a third party to bear a civil liability, such a third party shall have the litigation rights as a party to the litigation.

Section 2 Litigation Representatives

Article 57 For litigation-incompetent persons, their guardians shall be their legal representative in their litigations. If all legal representatives try to avoid their duties of representation, the people’s court may appoint one of them as the litigation represent.

Article 58 Each party or legal representative may appoint one or two persons to act as his litigation representatives.

Lawyers, a party’s near relatives, persons recommended by relevant public organizations or the units to which a party belongs, or any other citizens approved by a people’s court may be entrusted as the party’s litigation representatives.

Article 59 When a party entrusts a person to be his litigation representative, he shall submit a power of attorney bearing his signature or seal to the people’s court.

The power of attorney must specify the matters and authority scopes entrusted. A litigation representative must possess special authorization from his principal to be able to accept, relinquish, or modify the claim, to reach a settlement, or bring a counterclaim or an appeal.

When a citizen of the People’s Republic of China, who is residing abroad, mails or entrusts someone to deliver a power of attorney to China, he shall have the power of attorney certified by the Chinese embassy or consulate to that country. If there is no Chinese embassy or consulate in that country, he shall have the power of attorney certified by an embassy or a consulate of a third country, which has diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China and is stationed in the country, and then be transferred to the embassy or consulate of the People’s Republic of China stationed in that third state for verification; he may have the power of attorney certified by a local patriotic overseas Chinese organization.

Article 60 A party who changes or revokes the authority of his litigation representative shall inform the people’s court in writing and the court shall notify the other party of the change or revocation.

Article 61 Lawyers who serve as litigation representatives or other litigation representatives shall have the right to investigate and collect evidence, and may consult relevant materials to the case. The scopes and measures of consulting relevant materials to a case shall be regulated by the Supreme People’s Court.

Article 62 For a divorce case in which a party has appointed a litigation representative, that party shall appear in court in person unless he is incapable of expressing his own opinion. A party who is truly unable to appear in court due to a special reason shall submit his opinion in writing to the people’s court.

Chapter 6 Evidence

Article 63 Evidence shall be classified as follows:

(1)documentary evidence;

(2)physical evidence;

(3)audio and visual material;

(4)testimony of witnesses;

(5)statements of involving parties;

(6)conclusions of expert witnesses; and

(7)transcripts of inspection and examination.

Any of the above-mentioned evidence must be verified before it can be taken as a basis for finding a fact.

Article 64 A party shall have the responsibility to provide evidence in support of its own propositions.

For the evidence that cannot be obtained by any parties or their litigation representatives because of some realistic reasons or for the evidence that the people’s court considers necessary for adjudicating the case, the people’s court shall investigate and collect such evidence.

The people’s court shall, according to the procedure prescribed by law, collect and examine evidence comprehensively and objectively.

Article 65 The people’s court shall have the authority to obtain evidence from any relevant units or individuals, and such units or individuals may not refuse to provide evidence.

The people’s court shall verify and determine the validity of documentary evidence provided by relevant units or individuals.

Article 66 Evidence shall be presented in the court and cross-examined by parties, however, evidence that involves state secrets, trade secrets, or individual privacy shall not be presented in an open court session.

Article 67 The people’s court shall admit the legal acts, legal facts and documents that are notarized according to legal procedures as a basis for finding facts, except when there is contrary evidence that is sufficient to invalidate the notarization.

Article 68 Any document submitted as evidence shall be the original one. Physical evidence shall also be original. If it is truly difficult to present the original document or physical evidence, then duplications, photographs, copies, or extracts of the original evidence may be admitted.

If a document in a foreign language is submitted as evidence, a Chinese translation shall be appended.

Article 69 The people’s court shall authenticate audio and visual materials and decide whether they can be admitted as a basis for finding the facts after examining them and comparing them with other evidence of the same case.

Article 70 All units and individuals who have information about a case shall have the obligation to testify in court. The responsible persons of relevant units shall encourage the witnesses to give testimony. When it is truly too difficult for a witness to appear in court, he may, with the approval of the people’s court, submit a written testimony.

Any person who is incapable of expressing his opinion properly shall not testify.

Article 71 The people’s court shall examine the statements of the parties in connection with other evidence of the case to decide whether such statements can be taken as a basis for finding the facts.

The refusal of a party to make a statement shall not prevent the people’s court from finding the facts of a case based on other evidence.

Article 72 When a people’s court deems it necessary to make an evaluation of a specialized issue, it shall refer the issue to an authentication department authorized by law for the evaluation. In the absence of such department, the people’s court shall appoint an authentication department to make the evaluation.

The authentication department and the expert witness designated by the department shall have the right to consult the case materials necessary for the evaluation and direct inquiries to the parties and witnesses when circumstances require.

An authentication department and expert witness shall present its or his conclusion of the evaluation in writing and sign it or put his seal on it. With respect to an evaluation made by an expert witness, the unit to which the expert witness belongs shall certify his status by affixing its seal to the expert conclusion.

Article 73 When inspecting or examining physical evidence on site, the inspector must show his credentials issued by a people’s court. He shall invite the local basic organization or the relevant unit to send personnel to participate in the inspection. The parties concerned or the adult members of their families shall be present; however, their refusal to appear on the scene shall not prevent the inspection from proceeding.

Upon notification by the people’s court, the relevant units and individuals shall have the obligation to preserve the site and provide assistance for the inspection.

The inspector and examiner shall prepare a written record for the circumstances and results of the inspection or examination. The inspector, examiner, the party concerned and the invited participants shall affix their signatures or seals to the record.

Article 74 Under circumstances where there is a likely-hood that evidence may be destroyed, lost or too difficult to obtain later on, any litigation participants may apply to the people’s court for the preservation of the evidence. The people’s court may also take initiative to preserve such evidence.

Chapter 7 Time Periods and Service

Section 1 Time Periods

Article 75 Time periods shall include those prescribed by law and those designated by a people’s court.

Time periods shall be computed by hour, day, month, and year. The hour and day from which a time period begins shall not be computed as within that time period.

If the expiration date of a time period falls on a holiday, the day immediately following the holiday shall be regarded as the expiration date.

A statutory time period shall not include the time spent in transmittal of documents. A litigation document that is mailed before a deadline shall not be regarded as overdue.

Article 76 If a party fails to meet a deadline due to reasons beyond his control or other justifiable reasons, he may petition for an extension of the time limit within 10 days after the obstacle is removed. The requested extension shall be subject to approval by a people’s court.

Section 2 Service

Article 77 A receipt shall be required for every litigation document that is served and it shall bear the signature or seal of the recipient of the service and the date of receipt.

The date of receipt as signed by the recipient of the service shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

Article 78 Litigation documents shall be served directly on the recipient of the service. If the recipient of the service is a citizen, the documents may, in the case of his absence, be served on an adult member of the recipient’s family who lives with him. If the recipient of the service is a legal person or any other organization, the document shall be served on the legal representatives of the legal person, the principal leading personnel of any other organization, the personnel of the legal person or any other organization in charge of receiving such documents; If the recipient of the service has a litigation representative, the documents may be served on the litigation representative. If the recipient of the service has designated an agent to receive his litigation documents and has informed the people’s court of it, the documents may be served on the agent.

The date of receipt as signed by the adult family member living with the recipient of service, or persons in charge of receiving documents of the legal persons or other organizations, or litigation representative, or agents designated to receive his documents shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

Article 79 If the recipient of a service or any of his adult family members living with him refuses to accept a legal document, the person serving the document shall ask the representatives of the relevant basic organization or unit to which the recipient of the service belongs to appear on the scene, explain the situation to them, and record the reasons of the refusal and the date on the receipt. After the person serving the document and the witnesses have affixed their signatures or seals on the receipt, the document may be left at the place where the recipient of the service stays and the service shall be considered completed.

Article 80 If direct delivery service of a litigation document proves too difficult, such a service may be entrusted to the other people’s court, or it may be served by postal service. If a document is served by post, the date as stated on the receipt shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

Article 81 If the recipient of a service is in the military, the document shall be forwarded to him via the political organ at or above the regimen level in the unit to which the recipient belongs.

Article 82 If the recipient of the service is undergoing imprisonment, the document shall be forwarded to him via the prison or the unit of rehabilitation through labor where he is serving his sentence.

If the recipient of the service is undergoing reeducation through labor, the document shall be forwarded to him via the unit supervising his reeducation through labor.

Article 83 Any organization or unit that receives a litigation document to be forwarded must immediately deliver it to the recipient of the service for a receipt. The date as stated on the receipt shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

Article 84 If the whereabouts of a recipient is unknown, or if a document cannot be served by the other methods prescribed in this section, the document shall be served by public announcement. Sixty days after the date of the public announcement, the document shall be deemed to have been served.

The reasons for service by public announcement and the procedures taken shall be recorded in the case files.

Chapter 8 Mediation

Article 85 In handling civil cases, the people’s court may distinguish between right and wrong and mediate disputes according to the principle of parties’ voluntariness and based on clear facts.

Article 86 When a people’s court conducts mediation, a single judge or a collegial bench may preside in the mediation. Mediations shall be conducted locally whenever possible.

When a people’s court conducts mediation, it may employ simplified methods to notify the parties and witnesses to appear in court.

Article 87 When a people’s court conducts mediation, it may request assistance from relevant units or individuals. The invited units or individuals shall assist the people’s court in mediation.

Article 88 A mediation agreement must be based on voluntariness of both parties, and shall not be reached through compulsion. The content of the mediation agreement may not contravene the law.

Article 89 When a mediation agreement is reached, the people’s court shall draw up a written mediation agreement. A mediation agreement shall clearly set forth the claims of the action, the facts about the case, and the result of the mediation.

The mediation statement shall be signed by the judge and the court clerk, sealed by the people’s court, and served on both parties.

Once the mediation agreement is signed and exchanged by both parties, it shall become legally binding.

Article 90 The people’s court need not draw up a mediation agreement for the following cases when an agreement is reached through mediation:

(1)Divorce cases in which both parties have become reconciled after mediation;

(2)Adoption cases in which adoptive relationship has been retained through mediation;

(3)Cases in which the claims can be immediately satisfied; and

(4)Other cases that do not require mediation statements.

Any agreement that does not require a mediation agreement shall be entered into the transcript and become legally effective after the transcript is signed or sealed by both parties, the judge, and the court clerk.

Article 91If no agreement is reached through mediation or if one party retracts his reconciliation before the mediation agreement is served, the people’s court shall render a judgment without delay.

Chapter 9 Property Preservation and Advance Enforcement

Article 92 If it becomes impossible or difficult to enforce a judgment because of the acts taken by one of the parties or for other reasons, the people’s court may, upon the request of the other party, make an order to preserve the property. In the absence of such requests, the people’s court may, when necessary, also order to adopt property preservation measures.

When a people’s court has decided to adopt property preservation, it may instruct the applicant to provide a surety; if the applicant fails to do so, his application may be rejected.

After receiving a party’s application, if the case is urgent, the people’s court must make an order regarding property preservation within 48 hours; if a people’s court makes an order for property preservation, it shall enforce the preservation immediately.

Article 93 Any interested party whose lawful rights and interests, due to urgent circumstances, would suffer from un-remediable harms if he fails to petition for property preservation immediately, may, before filing the lawsuit, petition to the people’s court for the adoption of property preservation measures. The petitioner shall provide a surety; if the petitioner fails to do so, his petition may be rejected.

After receiving a party’s petition for property preservation, the people’s court shall make a ruling within 48 hours; if property preservation is granted by a ruling, the preservation thereof shall be enforced immediately.

If the petitioner fails to file a lawsuit within 15 days after the people’s court has adopted the preservation measures, the people’s court shall cancel the property preservation.

Article 94 Property preservation shall be limited to the scope of the claim or to the property related to the case.

The measures of property preservation may include seizure, detain, freeze, or other methods as prescribed by law.

When a people’s court freezes a property, it shall notify the person whose property is frozen.

Those properties that have already been seized, detained, or frozen shall not be seized or frozen again.

Article 95 If the defending party whose property is preserved provides a security, the people’s court shall cancel the property preservation.

Article 96 Where a petition is wrongfully made, the petitioner shall compensate the defending party for any loss incurred from the property preservation.

Article 97 The people’s court may, at the request of a party, order the measures for the following cases to be enforced in advance:

(1)Cases involving claims of alimonies, supports for children or elders, pension for the disabled or the family of a decedent, or expenses for medical care;

(2)Cases involving claims of wages; and

(3)Cases involving urgent circumstances that require enforcement in advance.

Article 98 The people’s court shall make sure the following conditions are met before making a ruling to enforce the property preservation in advance:

(1)The relationship of rights and obligations between the parties is definite, and the refusal of advance enforcement would seriously affect the life or business operation of petitioners; and

(2)The defending party whose property would be preserved is capable of fulfilling the obligations involved in the advance enforcement.

The people’s court may order the petitioners to provide sureties; if a petitioner fails to do so, his petition may be rejected. If the petitioner loses the lawsuit, he shall compensate the defending party whose property was preserved for any loss incurred from the advance enforcement.

Article 99 If a party is not satisfied with an order on property preservation or advance enforcement, he may petition for reconsideration that can be granted only once. However, the enforcement of the order shall not be suspended during the time of reconsideration.

Chapter 10 Compulsory Measures against Obstruction of Civil Actions

Article 100 If a defendant who is required to appear in court has been served twice with subpoena but still refuses to appear in court without legitimate reason, the people’s court may summon him to court by force.

Article 101 All litigation participants and other persons shall abide by the court rules.

For those persons who violate the court rules, the people’s courts may reprimand them, evict them from the courts, or impose a fine or detention on them.

For those persons who create uproars, disturb courtrooms, insult, slander, threat, or assault adjudicating personnel, or seriously disrupt the order of courtrooms, the people’s court shall investigate them for criminal liabilities according to law; if the circumstances are minor, a fine or detention may be imposed on the offender.

Article 102 Where any litigation participants or any other persons commit any of the following acts, the people’s courts shall impose a fine or detention on them based on the circumstances; if a crime is committed, the people’s court shall investigate them for criminal liabilities according to law.

(1)Forging or destroying significant evidence, which would obstruct the a people’s court’s adjudication of a case;

(2)Using violence, threats, or bribery to hinder a witness from giving testimony, or instigating, bribing, or coercing others to commit perjury;

(3)Concealing, transferring, selling, or destroying any properties that have been seized or detained, or any properties that have been inventoried and ordered by a court under the offenders’ custody, or transferring the property that has been frozen;

(4)Insulting, slandering, incriminating with false charges, beating up, or retaliating adjudicating personnel, litigation participants, witnesses, interpreters, experts witnesses, inspectors, or personnel assisting in enforcement; or

(5)Using violence, threats, or other means to hinder adjudicating personnel from performing their duties; or

(6)Refusing to comply with legally effective judgments or orders rendered by a people’s court.

Where a unit commits any of the following acts stipulated in the preceding paragraph, the people’s courts may impose a fine or detention on the principal leading personnel of the unit or the person directly responsible; if a crime is committed, the people’s court shall investigate them for criminal liabilities according to law.

Article 103 If a unit that has an obligation to assist in judicial investigation or enforcement commits any of the following acts, the people’s court may order the unit to perform its obligation but also impose a fine on the unit:

(1)Refusing or obstructing a people’s court from investigation or collecting evidence;

(2)Where the unit is a bank, credit union, or other institution engaging in saving deposit business, refusing to assist in inquiring, freezing, or transferring funds after receiving a notification from the people’s court for enforcement assistance;

(3)After receiving a notification on assistance in enforcement from the people’s court, refusing to assist in withholding the income of a defending party whom is ordered to pay or handling the transfer of property titles, relevant negotiable instruments, certificates and licenses, or other properties; or

(4)Refusing to provide other assistance in enforcement order by court.

With respect to a unit that commits any of the acts specified in the preceding paragraph, the people’s court may impose a fine on the principal leading personnel of the unit or the person directly responsible; and may detain them if they still fail to perform the obligation to provide assistance; and may also make judicial suggestions to the supervisory organ or other relevant organs on imposing a disciplinary sanction on the unit.

Article 104 A fine on an individual shall be not more than Renminbi 10, 000 Yuan. A fine on a unit shall be not less than Renminbi 10,000 Yuan and not more than Renminbi 300,000 Yuan.

A detention period shall not be longer than fifteen days.

The people’s court shall deliver detainees to a public security organ for custody. The people’s court may decide to grant the detainee an early release if he admits and is willing to correct his wrongdoing.

Article 105 Any summons by force, fines, or detentions shall be approved by the president of a people’s court.

A warrant shall be issued before carrying out a summon by force.

The rulings of fines and detentions shall be issued in written letter form. If a party does not agree with a decision, he may apply to a people’s court at a higher level for reconsideration and the reconsideration can be granted only once. However, the enforcement of the decision shall not be suspended during the time of reconsideration.

Article 106 Any decision on the adoption of compulsory measures against obstruction of civil actions shall be made by the people’s court. Any unit or individual pressing a debt payment by unlawfully detaining a person or illegally seizing other people’s property shall be investigated for criminal liabilities according to law or may be punished by detention or fine.

Chapter 11 Litigation Expenses

Article 107 Any party filing a civil lawsuit shall pay a case handling fee according to relevant regulations. For cases involving property, the party shall pay other litigation expenses, in addition to case handling fee.

Parties who truly have difficulties to pay litigation expenses may, according to relevant regulations, petition the people’s court to postpone, reduce, or wave the payment.

Procedures for the payment of litigation expenses shall be formulated separately.

Part Two Trial Procedure

Chapter 12 Ordinary Procedure of First Instance

Section 1 Filing and Accepting Lawsuits

Article 108 The following conditions must be met before a lawsuit is filed:

(1)The plaintiff must be a citizen, legal person, or an organization having a direct interest with the case;

(2)There must be a specific defendant;

(3)There must be a concrete claim, a factual basis, and a cause for the lawsuit; and

(4)The lawsuit must be within the scope of civil lawsuits to be accepted by the people’s courts and within the jurisdiction of the people’s court to which the lawsuit is filed.

Article 109 When filing a lawsuit, the motion of complaint shall be submitted to the people’s court with enough copies of the motion for all members of defendants.

If a plaintiff is truly difficult to write a motion of complaint, he may file his complaint orally, and the court shall record his complain in the transcript and inform the other party.

Article 110 A motion of complaint shall clearly state the following items:

(1)The name, sex, age, ethnicity, occupation, working unit, and address of parties or, if the parties are legal persons or organizations, their names and addresses and the names and positions of their legal representatives or principal leading personnel;

(2)The claims of the lawsuit and the facts and grounds on which the lawsuit is based; and

(3)Evidence and its source, as well as the names and addresses of witnesses.

Article 111 People’s courts shall accept the lawsuits filed in conformity with the provisions of Article 108 of this Law. For the lawsuits described below, people’s courts shall handle them according to their specific circumstances:

(1)For the cases within the scope of administrative lawsuits according to the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Law, the plaintiffs shall be informed to file administrative lawsuits;

(2)For the cases where both parties have voluntarily reached a written agreement according to law to submit their contract disputes to an arbitration agency for an arbitration, no one shall file a lawsuit in a people’s court and the plaintiffs shall be notified to submit the disputes to the arbitration agencies for arbitration;

(3)For the disputes which, according to law, should be handled by other organs, the plaintiffs shall be notified to petition the relevant organs for settlement;

(4)For the cases that are not within their jurisdictions, the people’s courts shall notify the plaintiffs to bring their lawsuits to the proper people’s courts that have the jurisdictions;

(5)Where one side of the parties file lawsuits against the same cases in which their judgments or orders have become legally effective, the people’s courts shall notify the plaintiffs to file a grievance instead except those cases in which the orders rendered by the people’s courts to allow the lawsuits to be withdrawn;

(6)If cases that are not permitted by law to be filed within a specified period of time are filed during the same period of time, they shall not be accepted by any courts; or

(7)For those divorce cases in which the judgments did not grant divorce or both parties have become reconciled after mediation and for those adoption cases in which the judgments have been given to maintain the adoptive relationship or that have been mediated to maintain the adoptive relationship, if there is no new developments or reasons, the plaintiffs are bared from filing new lawsuits regarding the same cases in six months.

Article 112 When a people’s court receives a motion of complaint or an oral complaint and finds the complaint meets the requirements of a civil lawsuit after reviewing the complaint, the court shall accept the case within seven days and notify the parties involved; if the complaint does not meet the requirements of a civil lawsuit, the court shall, within seven days, make a ruling to reject the complaint. If the plaintiff does not agree with the ruling, he may appeal on the ruling.

Section 2 Pretrial Preparation

Article 113 The people’s court shall deliver a copy of a motion of complaint to the defendant within five days from its acceptance of a case, and the defendant shall file a motion of defense within 15 days after receiving the copy of the motion of complaint.

If the defendant files a motion of defense, the people’s court shall deliver a copy of the motion of defense to the plaintiff within five days after receiving the motion of defense. If the defendant fails to file a motion of defense, it shall not prevent the case from being heard by the people’s court.

Article 114 When a people’s court decides to accept a case, the court shall inform the parties orally or in the notice of case acceptance or in the notice of litigation response, with their rights and obligations to the litigation.

Article 115 The parties shall be promptly notified after the members of a collegial bench are decided.

Article 116 The adjudicating personnel shall carefully examine the case materials and carry out investigation and collection of necessary evidence.

Article 117 The personnel sent by a people’s court to conduct an investigation shall first show their credentials to the person being investigated. The written record of an investigation shall be checked by the person investigated and then signed or sealed by both the investigator and the investigated.

Article 118 A people’s court may, when necessary, entrust a people’s court in another locality to conduct an investigation.

The entrusting people’s court shall clearly set out the matters and requirements of the entrusted investigation. The entrusted people’s court may, on its own initiative, conduct further investigation.

The entrusted people’s court shall complete the investigation within 30 days after receiving the letter to entrust the investigation. If for some reasons the entrusted court cannot complete the investigation, it shall notify the entrusting people’s court in writing within the 30 days.

Article 119 When a party who must appear in a joint litigation but fails to do so, the people’s court shall notify him to participate in the proceeding.

Section 3 Courtroom Trial

Article 120 Civil cases adjudicated by people’s courts shall usually be heard publicly, except for the cases that involve state secrets or the private affairs of individuals, or are otherwise provided by law.

A divorce case or a case involving trade secrets may not be heard publicly if a party so requests.

Article 121 When adjudicating civil cases, the people’s courts may, whenever necessary and possible, send out circuit tribunals to hold trials on the spot.

Article 122 The people’s court shall notify the parties and other participants in a civil case three days before the opening of a court session. If a case is to be heard publicly, the names of the parties, the cause of action, and the time and location of the court session shall be announced publicly.

Article 123 Before a court session is called to order, the court clerk shall find whether or not the parties and other participants of the case are present and announce the rules of court order.

At the beginning of a trial, the presiding judge shall check the identities of parties who appear in court, announce the cause of action and the names of the adjudicating personnel and court clerks, inform the parties of their relevant litigation rights and obligations, and ask the parties whether or not they wish to apply for the withdrawal of any court personnel.

Article 124 Courtroom investigation shall be conducted in the following order:

(1)Opening statements presented by both parties;

(2)Informing the witnesses of their rights and obligations, testimonies given by the witnesses, and reading the statements of absentee witnesses;

(3)Presenting documentary evidence, physical evidence, and audio and visual reference material;

(4)Reading the conclusions of expert witnesses; and

(5)Reading the transcripts of investigation and examination.

Article 125 The parties may present new evidence during a court session.

With the permission of the court, the parties may cross-examine witnesses, expert witnesses, and inspectors.

The parties may request a new investigation, expert evaluation, or inspection and such requests are subject to the approval of the people’s court.

Article 126 The additional claims of a plaintiff, the counterclaims of a defendant, and the claims of any third-party related to the same case may be combined and tried together.

Article 127 Courtroom debates shall be conducted in the following order:

(1)Opening statement presented by the plaintiff and his litigation representative;

(2)Responding statement presented by the defendant and his litigation representative;

(3)Statements or defending statements presented by third parties and their litigation representatives; and

(4)Debate between the two sides.

At the end of a courtroom debate, the presiding judge shall ask each side to present his final opinions in the order of plaintiff going first, defendant second, and third party last.

Article 128 At the end of a courtroom debate, a judgment shall be made according to law. Where mediation is possible prior to the rendering of a judgment, a session of mediation may be conducted; if mediation proves to be unsuccessful, a judgment shall be made without delay.

Article 129 If a plaintiff who has been served with a legal subpoena from a people’s court refuses to appear in court without proper reason, or if he walks out during a court session without the permission of the court, the court may consider the plaintiff has withdrawn his complaint; under these two circumstances, if the defendant files a counterclaim, the court may enter a default judgment.

Article 130 If a defendant who has been served with a legal subpoena from a people’s court refuses to appear in court without proper reason, or if he walks out during a court session without the permission of the court, the court may enter a default judgment.

Article 131 If a plaintiff applies to withdraw his complaints before a judgment is pronounces, the people’s court shall make a ruling regarding the application.

If a people’s court decides to reject an application of withdrawing a complaint and the plaintiff who has been served with a subpoena refuses to appear in court without proper reason, the people’s court may enter a default judgment.

Article 132 Under any of the following circumstances, their trail at courtroom may be postponed:

(1)Parties and other litigation participants who must appear in court fail to appear in court without proper reasons;

(2)A party requests the recusal of an adjudicating personnel without an advance notice;

(3)It is necessary to summon new witnesses to court, collect new evidence, make a new expert evaluation, hold another examination, or make a supplementary investigation; or

(4)Their circumstances that warrant the postponement.

Article 133 The court clerk shall record the entire court proceedings into a transcript and the transcript shall be signed by the adjudicating personnel and the court clerk.

The courtroom transcript shall be read out in court or the parties and other litigation participants may be notified to read the transcript while in court or come to court to read the transcript within five days. If a party or other litigation participants consider that there are omissions or errors in the transcript regarding their statements, they shall have the right to apply for additions or corrections. If such additions or corrections are not made, their application shall be recorded into the case file.

The courtroom transcript shall be signed or sealed by the parties and other litigation participants. If there is any refusal to do so, the refusal shall be recorded in a note to be attached to the file.

Article 134 People’s courts shall publicly pronounce their judgments in all case regardless if the cases were tried publicly or privately.

If a judgment is pronounced in court, the written judgment shall be issued and delivered within ten days; if a judgment is pronounced later on a fixed date, the written judgment shall be issued immediately after the pronouncement.

Upon pronouncement of a judgment, the parties must be informed of their right of appeal, the time limit for appeal, and the court to which they may appeal.

Upon pronouncement of a divorce judgment, the parties must be informed that none of them can marry another person before the judgment takes legal effect.

Article 135 A people’s court shall complete the adjudication of a case to which ordinary procedure is applied within six months after the case is accepted. Where an extension of the term is necessary for special circumstances, a six-month extension may be given upon the approval of the president of the court. Any further extension shall be reported to the people’s court at a higher level for approval.

Section 4 Lawsuit Suspension and Conclusion

Article 136 A lawsuit shall be suspended if it involves any of the following circumstances:

(1)One of the parties dies and it is necessary to wait for his successor to express whether he would participate in the proceedings;

(2)One of the parties has lost the capacity to engage in litigation and his litigation representative has not been designated;

(3)The legal person or any other organization as one of the parties has terminated, and the person succeeding to its rights and obligations has not been determined;

(4)One of the parties is unable to participate in the proceedings for reasons of force majeure;

(5)The current case is dependent on the results of the trial of another case that has not yet been concluded; or

(6)Other circumstances warrant the suspension of the lawsuit.

The proceedings shall resume after the causation of suspension is eliminated.

Article 137 A lawsuit shall be ended, if it involves any of the following circumstances:

(1)The plaintiff dies without a successor, or the heir waives his right of litigation;

(2)The defendant dies without estate or anyone to assume his obligations;

(3)In a divorce case, one of the parties dies, or

(4)In a case involving claims for overdue alimony, support of children or elders, or a claim for the termination of adoptive relationship, one of the parties dies.

Section 5 Judgments and Rulings

Article 138 A judgment shall clearly set forth the following:

(1) The cause of action, claims, and the facts and reasons of disputes;

(2) The facts and reasons on which the judgment is based and the laws to which are applied;

(3) The consequences of a judgment and the obligation of litigation costs; and

(4) The time limit for filing an appeal and the appellate court with which the appeal shall be filed.

The judgment shall be signed by the adjudicating personnel and the court clerk, and the seal of the people’s court shall be affixed to it.

Article 139 If some of the facts in a case being adjudicated by a people’s court have already been clear, the court may render judgments regarding these facts first.

Article 140 Rulings shall be applicable to the following:

(1) Rejection of a lawsuit;

(2) Objection to the jurisdiction of a court;

(3) Rejection of a complaint;

(4) Property preservation and advance enforcement;

(5) Approval or disapproval of withdrawal of a lawsuit;

(6) Suspension or ending of a lawsuit;

(7) Correction of typos in a judgment;

(8) Suspension or termination of enforcement;

(9) Cancellation or refusal of enforcing an arbitration award;

(10) Refusal of enforcing a document of creditor’s rights issued by a notary office; or

(11) Other matters to be decided by a ruling.

An appeal may be filed against a ruling against items 1, 2, or 3 of the preceding paragraph.

A written ruling shall be signed by the adjudicating personnel and the court clerk, and the seal of the people’s court shall be affixed to it. If an order is issued orally, it shall be entered into the record.

Article 141 All judgments and rulings rendered by the Supreme People’s Court, as well as judgments and rulings against which shall not be appealed according to law or have not been appealed within the prescribed time limit, shall be legally effective.

Chapter 13 Summary Procedure

Article 142 When adjudicating simple civil cases in which facts are clear, the relations of rights and obligations are definite, and disputes are minor, the basic people’s courts or their dispatched tribunals may apply the summary procedure stipulated in this Chapter.

Article 143 For simple civil cases, their plaintiffs may file their complaints orally.

Both parties may appear at the same time in a basic people’s court or its dispatched tribunal for a solution of their dispute. The basic people’s court or its dispatched tribunal may adjudicate the case immediately or set a date for the trial.

Article 144 When adjudicating a simple civil case, the basic people’s court or its dispatched tribunal may, at any time, use simplified methods to summon the parties and witnesses.

Article 145 A simple civil case shall be tried by one judge alone and the trial of such cases shall not be restricted by the provisions of Articles 123, 125, and 128 of this Law.

Article 146 The people’s court shall complete the adjudication of a case to which the summary procedure is applied within three months after the case is accepted.

Chapter 14 Procedure of Second Instance

Article 147 If a party disagrees with a judgment rendered by a local people’s court of first instance, he shall have the right to file an appeal with the people’s court at the next higher level within 15 days from the date when the written judgment is served.

If a party disagrees with a ruling made by a local people’s court of first instance, he shall have the right to file an appeal with a people’s court at the next higher level within 10 days from the date when the written ruling is served.

Article 148 When filing an appeal, a motion of appeal shall be submitted. A motion of appeal shall include the names of all parties, the names of legal persons and their legal representatives, or the names of other organizations and their principal leading personnel; the name of the people’s court where the case was originally tried, the docket number, and the cause of action; and the claims and reasons of appeal.

Article 149 A motion of appeal shall be submitted via the people’s court that originally tried the case and the copies of the motion shall be prepared according to the number of people or representatives in the opposing party.

If a party appeals directly to a people’s court of second instance, the court shall, within five days, transfer the motion of appeal to the people’s court that originally tried the case.

Article 150 Within five days after receiving a motion of appeal, the people’s court that originally tried the case shall deliver the copies of the motion of appeal to the appellee. After receiving the copies of the motion of appeal, the appellee shall submit its motion of defense within 15 days. The people’s court shall, within five days from receiving the motion defense, deliver the copies of the motion of defense to the appellant. Failure by the appellee to submit a motion of defense shall not prevent the case from being adjudicated by the people’s court.

After receiving the motion of appeal and the motion of defense, the people’s court that originally tried the case shall, within five days, deliver them together with the entire case file and evidence to the people’s court of second instance.

Article 151 A people’s court of second instance shall review the facts and the law used in an appellate case.

Article 152 When handling an appellate case, the people’s court of second instance shall form a collegial bench to adjudicate the case. After verifying the facts of the appellate case by consulting the files, making necessary investigations, and questioning the parties, if the collegial bench believes that it is not necessary to hold a trial, it may make a judgment or ruling without a trial.

A people’s court of second instance may try an appellate case in its own courthouse or in the place where the case originated or where the people’s court that originally tried the case is located.

Article 153 After hearing an appellate case, the people’s court of second instance shall handle the case respectively according to the following circumstances:

(1) If the facts were clearly found and the law was correctly applied in the original judgment, the appeal shall be rejected by a judgment and the original judgment shall be sustained;

(2) If the law was incorrectly applied in the original judgment, the judgment shall be amended according to law;

(3) If in the original judgment the facts were incorrectly found or were not clearly found and the evidence was inconclusive, the judgment shall be rescinded and the case remanded by an order to the original people’s court for a retrial, or the people’s court of second instance may amend the judgment after investigating and clarifying the facts; or

(4) If in the original judgment a violation of the prescribed procedure may have affected the correctness of the judgment, the judgment shall be rescinded and the case remanded by an order to the original people’s court for a retrial.

The parties may appeal against the judgment or ruling rendered in a retrial of their case.

Article 154 A people’s court of second instance shall use rulings to rule on all appellate cases that appealed against the rulings made by the people’s court of first instance.

Article 155 When adjudicating an appellate case, the people’s court of second instance may offer mediation for the parties. If an agreement is reached through mediation, a mediation statement shall be made and signed by the adjudicating personnel and the court clerk, and the seal of the people’s court shall be affixed to it. After the mediation statement has been delivered, the judgment rendered by the people’s court that originally tried the case shall be considered rescinded.

Article 156 If an appellant requests to withdraw his appeal before the people’s court of second instance pronounces its judgment, the court shall rule to approve or disapprove such a request.

Article 157 When a people’s court of second instance adjudicates an appeal, it shall apply the ordinary procedure of first instance unless otherwise stipulated in this Chapter.

Article 158 The judgments and rulings of a people’s court of second instance shall be final.

Article 159 When adjudicating an appeal from a judgment, the people’s court shall make a final judgment within three months after the appeal was accepted for an adjudication of second instance. Any extension of the term necessitated by special circumstances shall be subject to the approval of the president of the court.

When adjudicating an appeal from a ruling, the people’s court shall make a final ruling within 30 days after the case was accepted for an adjudication of second instance.

Chapter 15 Special Procedure

Section 1 General Stipulations

Article 160 When a people’s court adjudicates cases concerning the credentials of voters, the declaration of a missing or dead person, the civil capacity of a citizen (incompetent or limited capacity in civil conduct), or the ownership of unclaimed property, the provisions of this Chapter shall be applicable. For matters not covered in this Chapter, the relevant provisions of this Law and other laws shall be applicable.

Article 161 For cases to be adjudicated according to the procedure stipulated in this Chapter, the system of one trial to conclude a case shall be applied. A collegial bench of judges shall be formed for the adjudication of any cases involving the credentials of voters, or any major, difficult, or complicated cases; and all the other kinds of cases shall be tried by one judge alone.

Article 162 If a people’s court, while adjudicating a case according to the procedure stipulated in this Chapter, discovers that the case involves a dispute over civil rights and interests, it shall make a ruling to terminate the special procedure and inform the interested parties that they may bring a new lawsuit.

Article 163 When adjudicating a case to which special procedure is applied, the people’s court shall conclude the adjudication within one month after the case is accepted or within one month from expiration of the term set forth in the public announcement. Any extension of the term necessitated by special circumstances shall be subject to the approval of the president of the court. However, this article does not apply to the adjudication of voters’ credentials.

Section 2 Cases Concerning the Credentials of Voters

Article 164 If citizens refuse to accept an election committee’s decision on an appeal concerning the credentials of voters, they may, in five days before the election day, bring a lawsuit in the basic people’s court located in their electoral districts.

Article 165 After a people’s court has accepted a case concerning the credentials of voters, it must conclude the case before the election day.

The plaintiff, the representative of the election committee, and the relevant citizens shall participate in the proceedings.

The written judgment of the people’s court shall be delivered to the election committee and the plaintiff before the election day, and the relevant citizens shall be notified of the judgment.

Section 3 Cases Concerning the Declaration of Missing or Dead Persons

Article 166 Where a citizen whose whereabouts have been unknown for two years and the interested party pleads for the declaration of the person to be missing, the pleading shall be filed with the basic people’s court in the locality where the missing person has his domicile.

The pleading shall clearly state the facts and time of the disappearance as well as the action requested, and documentary evidence from a public security organ or other relevant organs concerning the disappearance of the citizen shall be appended.

Article 167 Where a citizen whose whereabouts have been unknown for four years or whose whereabouts have been unknown for two years after an accident in which he was involved, or whose whereabouts have been unknown after an accident in which he was involved and whose surviving chance is impossible based on the evaluation of a relevant authority, and if the interested party pleads for the declaration of the citizen to be dead, the pleading shall be filed with the basic people’s court in the locality where the missing person has his domicile.

The pleading shall clearly state the facts and time of the disappearance as well as the action requested, and documentary evidence from a public security organ or other relevant organs concerning the disappearance of this citizen shall be appended.

Article 168 After accepting a case concerning a declaration of a missing or dead person, the people’s court shall issue a public announcement to search for the missing person. The time period to declare a person is missing shall last for three months, and the time period to declare a person is dead shall last for one year. Where a citizen’s whereabouts have been unknown after an accident in which he was involved and his surviving chance is impossible based on the evaluation of a relevant authority, the time limit to declare such a person is dead shall be three months.

Upon the expiration of the time period for the public announcement, the people’s court shall, depending on whether the facts about the missing or death of a person can be confirmed, make a judgment to declare the person is missing or dead, or make a judgment to reject such a pleading.

Article 169 Should a citizen who was declared as a missing or dead person by a people’s court reappear, the people’s court shall, upon the application of that person or an interested party, make a new judgment to nullify the previous one.

Section 4 Cases Concerning the Determination of Citizens’ Capacities in Civil Conducts

Article 170 A pleading for determining if a citizen has limited capacity or does not have capacity in civil conduct shall be filed by the citizen’s close relatives or any other interested party with the basic people’s court in the locality where the citizen has his domicile.

The pleading shall clearly state the facts and grounds on which the citizen’s incompetence or limited capacity in civil conducts is claimed.

Article 171 After accepting such a pleading, the people’s court shall, when necessary, appoint an expert to perform an evaluation on the citizen whom is pleaded to have incompetent or limited capacity in civil conducts; if the petitioner has already provided an evaluation conclusion, the people’s court shall review the conclusion.

Article 172 When a people’s court adjudicates a case to determine if a citizen has incompetent or with limited capacity in civil conduct, a close relative of the citizen shall be the litigation representative unless he is also the petitioner. If none of the close relatives are willing to assume the responsibility as the litigation representative, the people’s court shall appoint one of them as a litigation representative for the citizen. If the citizen’s state of health permits, the people’s court may also question the citizen.

If the people’s court is convinced, after adjudication, that the pleading is based on facts, it shall make a judgment to determine the citizen has incompetent or limited capacity in civil conduct; if the court finds that the pleading is not based on facts, it shall make a judgment to reject the plead.

Article 173 Based on a pleading filed by a person who was found to have incompetent or limited capacity in civil conduct or filed by his guardian, if the people’s court finds that the causation that makes the person to have incompetent or limited capacity in civil conduct has disappeared, it shall make a new judgment to nullify the previous one.

Section 5 Cases Concerning the Determination of Ownerless Property

Article 174 A petition for determining a property to be ownerless shall be filed by a citizen, legal person, or an organization with the basic people’s court located in the place where the property is located.

The petition shall clearly state the type and quantity of the property and the grounds on which the petition for determining the property to be ownerless is filed.

Article 175 After accepting such a petition, the people’s court shall review and verify the petition and then issue a public announcement to see if anyone would claim the property. If no one claims the property for a year after the public announcement was issued, the people’s court shall make a judgment to declare the property is ownerless and turn the property over to the treasury of the state or a collective unit.

Article 176 After a property was determined by a judgment to be ownerless, if the owner of the property or his successor emerges, he may claim the property within the statutory limitation proscribed in the General Principle of Civil Law, the people’s court shall, after examination and verification, make a new judgment to nullify the previous one.

Chapter 16 Procedure of Adjudication Supervision

Article 177 If the president of a people’s court at any level finds some definite errors in a legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by his court and deems it is necessary to have the case re-adjudicated, he shall refer the case to the adjudication committee for discussion and decision.

If the Supreme People’s Court finds some definite errors in a legally effective judgment or rulings rendered by a local people’s court at any level, or if a people’s court at a higher level finds some definite errors in a legally effective judgment or ruling of a people’s court at a lower level, the Supreme People’s Court or the people’s court at the higher level shall have the power to bring the case up to be re-adjudicated by itself or direct the people’s court at a lower level to conduct a re-adjudication.

Article 178 If a party considers that a legally effective judgment or ruling has some errors, he may petition the people’s court at the next higher level for retrial; however, the enforcement of the judgment or ruling shall not be suspended.

Article 179 If a petition for retrial made by a party involves any of the following circumstances, the people’s court shall retry the case:

(1) There is new evidence which is conclusive enough to overrule the original judgment or ruling;

(2) The main evidence used in the original judgment or ruling to find the facts was insufficient;

(3) The main evidence used in the original judgment or ruling to find the facts was forged;

(4) The main evidence used in the original judgment or ruling to find the facts was not cross-examined;

(5) Any party to a lawsuit is unable to obtain the evidence necessary for adjudicating the case because of some realistic reasons and has applied to the people’s court for investigation and collection of such evidence in writing, but the people’s court fails to investigate and collect such evidence;

(6) There was an error in the application of the law in the original judgment or ruling;

(7) The jurisdiction was in violation of legal provisions and was improper;

(8) The trial organization was unlawfully formed or the adjudicators that should withdraw have not done so;

(9) The person incapable of action is not represented by a legal agent, or the party that should participate in the litigation failed to do so because of the reasons not attributable to himself or his legal agent;

(10) The party’s right to debate was deprived of in violation of the law;

(11) The default judgment in the absence of the party was made whereas that party was not served with summons;

(12) Some claims were omitted or exceeded in the original judgment or ruling; or

(13) The legal document on which the original judgment or ruling was made is cancelled or revised.

With respect to a violation of the legal procedure by a people’s court that may have affected the correctness of the judgment or ruling in the case or the situation that adjudicating personnel involved themselves in any conduct of embezzlement, bribery, practicing favoritism for himself or relatives, or twisting the law in rendering judgment, the people’s court shall retry the case.

Article 180 A party that applies for retrial shall submit a retrial petition and other materials. The people’s court shall, within five days after receiving the retrial petition, serve the duplicate of the retrial petition on the opposing party. The opposing party shall submit written opinions within 15 days after receiving the duplicate of the retrial petition; and the failure to submit written opinions will not affect the review by the people’s court. The people’s court may require the applicant and the opposing party to supplement relevant matters and may inquire about relevant matters.

Article 181 The people’s court shall review a retrial petition within three months after receiving it, and rule to retry the case if the retrial petition is under any of the circumstances specified in Article 179 of this Law; or rule to reject the petition if the retrial petition is not under any of the circumstances specified in Article 179 of this Law. Where an extension of the term is necessary for special circumstances, it shall be subject to the approval of the president of the court.

If a case is ruled to be retried upon application of a party involved, the case shall be retried by an intermediate people’s court or a people’s court at a higher level. If a case is ruled to be retried by the Supreme People’s Court or a higher people’s court, the case shall be retried by the court that ruled the retrial or any other people’s court, or may be retried by the people’s court that originally tried the case.

Article 182 For a legally effective mediation statement, if evidence provided by a party proves that the mediation violates the principle of voluntariness and the content of the mediation statement is in violation of the law, the party may plead for a re-adjudication. The people’s court shall, upon examination and verification, re-adjudicate the case.

Article 183 For a legally effective judgment on dissolution of marriage, no party shall apply for a re-adjudication.

Article 184 Any retrial petition by a party shall be made within two years after the judgment or ruling becomes legally effective; or be made within three months after the party has known or should know that the legal document on which the original judgment or ruling was made is cancelled or revised or that the adjudicating personnel were involved in any conduct of embezzlement, bribery, practicing favoritism for himself or relatives, or twisting the law in rendering judgment after two years.

Article 185 When a decision is made to retry a case according to the procedure of adjudication supervision, the enforcement of the original judgment shall be ordered to be suspended. The order shall be signed by the president of the court, and the seal of the people’s court shall be affixed to it.

Article 186 For a case to be retried by a people’s court according to the procedure of adjudication supervision, if the legally effective judgment or ruling was made by a court of first instance, the case shall be retried according to the procedure of first instance, and the parties may appeal against the new judgment or ruling; if the legally effective judgment or ruling was made by a court of second instance, it shall be retried according to the procedure of second instance, and the new judgment or ruling shall be legally effective; if it is a case that was brought up for a retrial by a people’s court at a higher level, it shall be retried according to the procedure of second instance, and the new judgment or ruling shall be legally effective.

The people’s court shall, in retrying a case, form a new collegial bench.

Article 187 If the Supreme People’s Procuratorate discovers that a legally effective judgment or ruling made by a people’s court at any level, or if a people’s procuratorate at a higher level discovers that a legally effective judgment or ruling made by a people’s court at a lower level, involves any of the circumstances specified in Article 179 of this Law, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate or the people’s procuratorate at a higher level shall respectively file a protest.

If a local people’s procuratorate at any level discovers that a legally effective judgment or ruling made by a people’s court at the same level involves any of the circumstances specified in Article 179 of this Law, the people’s procuratorate shall ask the people’s procuratorate at a higher level to file a protest with the people’s court at the same level.

Article 188 With respect to a case protested by a people’s procuratorate, the people’s court that has accepted the protest shall render a ruling for retrial within 30 days after receiving the protest; and a case under any of the circumstances specified in Items (1) up to (5) of Paragraph 1 of Article 179 of this Law may be retried by the people’s court at the next lower level.

Article 189 When the people’s procuratorate decides to file a protest against a judgment or ruling made by a people’s court, it shall produce a motion of protest.

Article 190 When a people’s court hears a case protested by a people’s procuratorate, the court shall notify the people’s procuratorate to send personnel to the court.

Chapter 17 Procedure for Hastening Debt Recovery

Article 191 When a creditor requests his debtor to repay money or negotiable instrument, he may plead the basic people’s court that has jurisdiction to issue a warrant for payment if the following requirements are met:

(1) The creditor and the debtor are not involved in other debt disputes; and

(2) The warrant for payment can be served on the debtor.

The pleading shall clearly state the requested amount of money or quantity of negotiable instrument and the facts and evidence on the basis of which the request is made.

Article 192 After a creditor files his pleading, the people’s court shall, within five days, inform the creditor whether his pleading is accepted.

Article 193 After accepting such a pleading, the people’s court shall, upon examination of the facts and evidence provided by the creditor, if the relationship of the creditor’s rights and the debtor’s obligations is definite and legitimate, issue a warrant for payment to the debtor within 15 days from accepting the pleading. If the pleading is untenable, the people’s court shall make a ruling to dismiss it.

The debtor shall, within 15 days from the receipt of the warrant for payment, pay off his debts or submit a written objection to the people’s court.

If the debtor has neither submitted an objection nor complied with the warrant for payment within the time limit specified in the preceding paragraph, the creditor may ask the people’s court to enforce the warrant.

Article 194 The people’s court shall, upon receiving the written objection submitted by the debtor, make a ruling to stop the procedure for supervising debt collection and the warrant for payment shall be invalidated automatically. However, the creditor may then file a lawsuit.

Chapter 18 Procedure of Public Summon

Article 195 An owner of a transferable negotiable instrument according to regulations may, if the instrument is stolen, lost, or missing, plead the basic people’s court located in the place where the instrument to be paid to issue a public summon. The provisions of this Chapter shall also be applicable to other matters related to public summon according to legal provisions.

Anyone who applies for a public summon shall submit to the people’s court an application which shall clearly state the main contents of the bill such as the face value, the issuer, the holder, the endorser, and the grounds and facts on which the application is made.

Article 196 The people’s court shall, upon deciding to accept the pleading, notify the payer to suspend the payment, and within three days, issue a public summon to invite the interested parties to claim their rights or interests. The time limit of the public summon shall be at the discretion of the people’s court, however, it shall not be less than sixty days.

Article 197 The payer shall, upon receiving the notification of payment suspension issued by a people’s court, suspend the payment till the conclusion of the procedure of public summon.

Within the time limit of a public summon, any act to transfer the rights of the disputed instrument shall have no legal effects.

Article 198 Any interested parties shall plead the people’s court for asserting their claims within the time limit of a public summon.

After receiving a pleading of an interested party for asserting his claims, the people’s court shall make a ruling to conclude the procedure of the public summon to invite the interested parties to assert their claims and notify the applicant and the payer.

The applicant or the claimant may institute a lawsuit in the people’s court.

Article 199 If no one asserts a claim, the people’s court shall make a judgment on the basis of the petition to declare the negotiable instrument null and void. The judgment shall be announced in a public notice, and the payer of the bill shall be notified of the judgment. As of the date of the public notice, the applicant shall be entitled to claim payment from the payer.

Article 200 If an interested party for a legitimate reason was unable to plead the people’s court for asserting his claim before the judgment was made, he may, within one year from the day he knew or should have known of the public notice of the judgment, file a lawsuit in the people’s court that made the judgment.

Part Three Procedure of Enforcement

Chapter 19 General Stipulations

Article 201 Legally effective judgments or rulings of civil cases and the parts of judgments or rulings related to property in criminal cases shall be enforced by the people’s court of first instance or the people’s court at the same level where the property that is to be enforced is located.

Other legal documents that are to be enforced by a people’s court as prescribed by law shall be enforced by the people’s court located in the place where the person to be enforced has his domicile or where the property that is subject to the enforcement is located.

Article 202 If a party or any interested party considers that the enforcement is in violation of legal provisions, it may raise a written objection to the people’s court in charge of the enforcement. If a party or any interested party raises a written objection, the people’s court shall review the written objection within 15 days after receiving it. If the objection is tenable, the people’s court shall rule to cancel or correct the enforcement; and if the objection is untenable, the people’s court shall rule to reject the objection. If a party or any interested party is not satisfied with the ruling, it may apply for reconsideration to the people’s court at the next higher level within 10 days after the ruling is served.

Article 203 If the people’s court fails to make enforcement within six months after receiving the application for enforcement, the person who has applied for the enforcement may apply for enforcement to the people’s court at the next higher level. Upon review, the people’s court at the next higher level may order the original people’s court to make enforcement within a specified period of time, or may decide to make enforcement by itself or direct any other people’s court to make enforcement.

Article 204 If, during the course of enforcement, a person who is not involved in the case raises a written objection to the subject matter of the enforcement, the people’s court shall review the written objection within 15 days after receiving it. If the objection is tenable, the people’s court shall rule to suspend the enforcement on the subject matter; and if the objection is untenable, it shall be rejected. If a person who is not involved in the case or a party involved is not satisfied with the ruling and considers that there is an error in the original judgment or ruling, it shall be dealt with according to the procedure of adjudication supervision; and if a written objection is irrelevant to the original judgment or ruling, the relevant party may file a lawsuit with the people’s court within 15 days after the ruling is served.

Article 205 The enforcement shall be carried out by the enforcement officer.

In carrying out a compulsory enforcement measure, the enforcement officer shall show his credentials. After the enforcement is completed, the enforcement officer shall make a written record for the particulars of the enforcement, and have it signed or sealed by the persons concerned on the scene.

The people’s court may, when necessary, establish executive organs.

Article 206 If a person or property to be subject to enforcement is in another locality, the people’s court in that locality may be entrusted to enforce the enforcement. The entrusted people’s court shall begin the enforcement within 15 days after receiving a power of attorney and shall not refuse to do so. After the enforcement has been completed, the entrusted people’s court shall promptly inform the entrusting people’s court with the result of the enforcement by writing. If the enforcement has not been completed within 30 days, the entrusted people’s court shall also inform the entrusting people’s court with the particulars of the enforcement by writing.

If the entrusted people’s court fails to enforce the enforcement within 15 days after receiving the power of attorney, the entrusting people’s court may request the people’s court at a higher level of the entrusted people’s court to instruct the entrusted people’s court to enforce the enforcement.

Article 207 If, during the course of enforcement, both disputing parties reconcile themselves and reach a settlement agreement on their own initiative, the enforcement officer shall make a written record of the terms of the settlement and have both parties affix their signatures or seals onto the record.

If one party fails to fulfill the settlement agreement, the people’s court may, at the request of the other party, resume the enforcement according to the original and effective legal document.

Article 208 During the course of enforcement, if the person to be enforced provides a surety, the people’s court may, with the consent of the person who has applied for the enforcement, decide to postpone the enforcement or defer the time limit for the enforcement. If the person to be enforced fails again to perform his duty within the new time limit, the people’s court shall have the power to enforce the guaranteed property of the person to be enforced or the property of the guarantor.

Article 209 If the citizen to be enforced dies, his debts shall be paid off from his estate; if a legal person or any other organization to be subject to enforcement is terminated, the party that succeeds to its rights and obligations shall fulfill the obligations.

Article 210 After an enforcement has been enforced according to a judgment, ruling, or legal document, if a definite error is discovered in such a judgment, ruling, or legal document and therefore such a judgment, ruling, or legal document has been revoked by a people’s court, the people’s court shall, with respect to the property which has been enforcement, make a ruling to order the person who has received the enforcement property to return the property. If he refuses to return the property, a compulsory enforcement shall be enforced on him.

Article 211 The provisions of this Part shall be applicable to the enforcement of a mediation agreement drawn up by a people’s court.

Chapter 20 Application and Referral of Enforcement

Article 212 All the parties shall comply with a legally effective judgment or ruling in a civil case. If a party refuses to comply, the other party may apply to the people’s court for enforcement, or the judge may refer the matter to an enforcement officer for enforcement.

All the parties shall also comply with a mediation agreement or other legal documents that are to be enforced by a people’s court. If a party refuses to comply, the other party may apply to the people’s court for enforcement.

Article 213 If a party fails to comply with an award made by an arbitration institution that was established according to law, the other party may apply for enforcement to the people’s court which has jurisdiction over the case. The applied people’s court shall enforce the award.

If the party whom the application of enforcement is filed against provides evidence to prove that the arbitration award involves any of the following circumstances, the people’s court shall, after examination and verification by a collegial bench, rule to revoke the enforcement of the arbitration award:

(1) Where the parties have not stipulated an arbitration clause in the contract or have not subsequently reached a written agreement on arbitration;

(2) Where the matters being arbitrated exceed the scope of the arbitration agreement or the authority of the arbitration agency;

(3) Where the formation of an arbitration tribunal or the procedure of arbitration is not in conformity with the legal procedure;

(4) Where the main evidence for finding the facts is insufficient;

(5) Where there is an error in the application of the law; or

(6) Where the arbitrators involved in any of conducts of embezzlement, bribery, practicing favoritism for himself or relatives, twisting the law in rendering arbitration award.

If a people’s court determines that the enforcement of an arbitration award would contradict the social and public interest, it shall make a ruling of not to enforce the award.

The above-mentioned order shall be served on both parties and the arbitration agency.

Where an arbitration award is ruled by a people’s court not to be enforced, the parties may, according to the written arbitration agreement reached by them, apply to the arbitration agency for a new arbitration or bring a lawsuit to a people’s court.

Article 214 If a party fails to comply with a certificate of obligation enforcement by a notary office according to law, the other party may apply to the people’s court that has the jurisdiction over the case for the enforcement of the obligation and the applied people’s court shall enforce such an obligation.

If a people’s court discovers a definite error in a notarized certificate of obligation, the people’s court shall make a ruling not to enforce the obligation and serve the letter of the ruling to the both parties and the notary office.

Article 215 The time limit for the submission of an application for enforcement shall be two years. The suspension or termination of the time limit for the submission of an application for enforcement shall be governed by the provisions on the suspension or termination of the statute of limitation.

The time limit prescribed in the preceding paragraph shall be calculated from the last day of the period specified by a legal document for its performance. If a legal document specifies an installment performance, the time limit shall be calculated from the last day of the period specified for each installment of performance. If a legal document does not specify the period of performance, the time limit shall be calculated from the day when the legal document takes effects.

Article 216 An enforcement officer shall, after receiving the application for enforcement or the writ of referral of enforcement, send an enforcement notice to the person to be enforced, instructing him to comply with the enforcement within the specified time limit. If the person fails to comply with the enforcement within the time limit, a compulsory enforcement shall be enforced.

If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill the obligations specified in a legal document and may hide or transfer his property, the enforcement officers may take the compulsory enforcement measure immediately.

Chapter 21 Enforcement Measures

Article 217 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill the obligations specified in a legal document as instructed by the enforcement notice, he shall report his property situation for the time being and one year before he has received the enforcement notice. If a person to be enforced refuses to report his property situation or makes a false report, the people’s court may, based on the circumstances, impose a fine or detention on the person to be enforced, his legal representative or the principal leading personnel of the unit or the person directly responsible.

Article 218 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill the obligations specified in a legal document as instructed by the enforcement notice, the people’s court shall have the power to make inquiries to the banks, credit unions or other units that deal with saving deposits about the savings deposited by the person subject to the enforcement, and shall also have the power to freeze and appropriate the savings deposited by the person subject to the enforcement, however, the inquiry, freeze, or appropriation of the deposits shall not exceed the scope of the obligation that the person subject to the enforcement should fulfill.

A people’s court shall make a ruling to freeze or appropriate a deposit and issue a notice for assisting the enforcement. The banks, credit unions, or other units that deal with saving deposits shall comply with the notice.

Article 219 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill the obligations specified in a legal documents instructed by an enforcement notice, the people’s court shall have the power to withhold or withdraw the portion of his income to fulfill his obligation. However, the court shall leave the necessary living expenses for the person and his dependent family members.

A people’s court shall make a ruling to withhold or withdraw a person’s income and issue a notice for assisting the enforcement. The unit for which the person to be enforced works, banks, credit unions, or other units that deal with savings deposits shall comply with the notice.

Article 220 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill his obligation specified in a legal document instructed by the enforcement notice, the people’s court shall have the power to seize, detain, freeze, auction, or sell the portion of his property in order to fulfill his obligations. However, the court shall leave the articles of daily necessity used by the person and his dependent family members.

The people’s court shall make a ruling in order to take the measures specified in the preceding paragraph.

Article 221 When a people’s court seizes or detains a property, if the person to be enforced is a citizen, the court shall notify the person or an adult member of his family to appear on the scene; if the person to be enforced is a legal person or another organization, the court shall notify its legal representatives or the principal leading personnel to appear on the scene. Their refusal to appear on the scene shall not prevent the enforcement. If a person to be enforced is a citizen, his unit or the basic-level organization in the place where his property is located shall send someone to the scene.

An inventory of the seized or detained property shall be made by the enforcement officer and, after the inventory has been signed or sealed by the persons on the scene, a copy of the inventory shall be given to the person subject to the enforcement. If the person subject to the enforcement is a citizen, a copy of the inventory may also be given to an adult member of his family.

Article 222 The enforcement officer may ask the person to be enforced to safeguard the seized property. The person who is subject to enforcement shall be held responsible for any losses incurred due to his fault.

Article 223 After a property has been seized or detained, the enforcement officer shall order the person to be enforced to fulfill, within the prescribed time limit, the obligations specified in a legal document. If the person fails to fulfill his obligations within the prescribed time limit, the people’s court may, according to relevant regulations, ask the relevant units to auction or sell the seized or detained property. The articles that are prohibited from free trading by the state shall be purchased by the relevant units at the price fixed by the state.

Article 224 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill his obligations specified in a legal document and conceals his property, the people’s court shall have the power to issue a search warrant and search his domicile or the place where the property may be concealed.

The adoption of the measures mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall be subject to a search warrant signed by the president of the people’s court.

Article 225 The delivery of property or negotiable instrument specified in a legal document shall be conducted in the presence of both parties summoned by the enforcement officer or the enforcement officer may deliver the property or the negotiable instrument to the recipient. The recipient of the property or the negotiable instrument shall sign a receipt.

Any unit that holds the property or negotiable instruments to be enforced shall pass it on according to the enforcement assistance notice issued by the people’s court and the recipient shall sign a receipt.

If any citizen holds the property or negotiable instruments to be enforced, the people’s court shall notify him to relinquish them. If he refuses to do so, a compulsory enforcement may be enforced.

Article 226 For a compulsory eviction from a building or a plot of land, the president of a people’s court shall sign and issue a public announcement to order the person to be enforcement to perform his obligations within a designated period of time. If the person fails to do so within the designated time, a compulsory enforcement may be enforced by the enforcement officer.

When a compulsory enforcement is being enforced, if the person subject to the enforcement is a citizen, the person or an adult member of his family shall be notified to be present on the scene; if the person subject to the enforcement is a legal person or any other organization, its legal representatives or principal leading personnel shall be notified to be present on the scene; their refusal to be present shall not stop the enforcement. If the person to be enforced is a citizen, his work unit or the basic-level organization in the locality of the building or the plot of land to be enforcement shall send people to participate in the enforcement. The enforcement officer shall make a written record of the particulars of the compulsory enforcement, and the people on the scene shall affix their signatures or seals to the record.

The people’s court shall assign personnel to transport the properties involved in a compulsory eviction from a building to a designated location and deliver them to the person to be enforced or to an adult member of his family; if any loss is incurred due to the person’s refusal to accept the properties, he shall be liable for the loss.

Article 227 During the course of enforcement, if some formalities to transfer the certificates of titles need to be done, the people’s court may issue an enforcement assistance notice to relevant units and these units shall comply with the notice.

Article 228 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill his obligations prescribed in a judgment, ruling, or any other legal document as instructed by the notice of enforcement, the people’s court may conduct a compulsory enforcement or entrust a relevant unit or other persons to carry out the enforcement and the person subject to the enforcement shall bear the expenses thus incurred.

Article 229 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill his obligations of paying money within the time limit specified by a judgment, ruling, or any other legal documents, he shall pay a multiplied interest for the debt based on the default time. If the person subject to the enforcement fails to fulfill his other obligations within the time limit specified by a judgment, ruling, or any other legal documents, he shall pay a surcharge for the deferred performance.

Article 230 After a people’s court adopts an enforcement measure stipulated in Articles 118, 119, and 120 of this Law, if the person subject to the enforcement is still unable to pay debts, he shall continue to fulfill his obligations. Once the creditor discovers that the person subject to the enforcement has other properties, the creditor may at any time apply to the people’s court for an enforcement of these properties.

Article 231 If a person to be enforced fails to fulfill the obligations specified in a legal document, the people’s court may adopt or notify relevant units to assist to adopt the measure of restricting the exit, making records on the credit system, making public the information about nonperformance of duty through public media or any other measure stipulated by law.

Chapter 22 Suspension and Termination of Enforcement

Article 232 Under any of the following circumstances, the people’s court shall make a ruling to suspend the enforcement:

(1) The applicant indicates that the enforcement may be postponed;

(2) A person not involved in the case raises a justified objection to the subject matter of the enforcement;

(3) A citizen as one of the parties dies and it is necessary to wait for an heir to inherit the rights of the deceased or to succeed his obligations;

(4) A legal person or any other organization as one of the parties ceases its existence, and the person succeeding to its rights and obligations has not been determined; or

(5) Other circumstances that the people’s court deems the enforcement should be suspended.

Enforcement shall be resumed when the circumstances that caused the suspension of enforcement have disappeared.

Article 233 Under any of the following circumstances, the people’s court shall make a ruling to terminate the enforcement:

(1) The applicant has withdrawn his application of enforcement;

(2) The legal document on which the enforcement is based has been repealed;

(3) The citizen to be enforced dies and there is no estate to be enforced and no one to succeed his obligations;

(4) The person who is entitled to alimony or supports for children or elders dies;

(5) The citizen to be enforced is too poor to repay his debts, has no source of income, and loses his ability to work; or

(6) Other circumstances that the people’s court deems the enforcement should be concluded.

Article 234 A ruling to suspend or terminate the enforcement shall become effective immediately after being served on the parties concerned.

Part Four Special Provisions of the Civil Procedures Involving Foreign Elements

Chapter 23 General Principles

Article 235 The provisions of this Part shall be applicable to any civil litigation involving foreign elements within the territory of the People’s Republic of China. Where it is not covered by the provisions of this Part, other relevant provisions of this Law shall apply.

Article 236 If an international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China contains provisions differing from those found in this Law, the provisions of the international treaty shall apply, unless the provisions are the ones on which China has announced reservations.

Article 237 Any civil lawsuits brought against a foreign national, a foreign organization, or an international organization that enjoys diplomatic privileges or immunities shall be dealt with according to the relevant laws of the People’s Republic of China and with the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China.

Article 238 A people’s court shall use the spoken and written languages commonly used in the People’s Republic of China to adjudicate civil cases involving foreign elements. Translation may be provided at the request of the parties concerned and the expenses of the translation shall be borne by the requesting parties.

Article 239 When foreign nationals, stateless persons, or foreign enterprises or organizations need to appoint lawyers for filing or respond to a lawsuit in a people’s court, they shall appoint the lawyers of the People’s Republic of China only.

Article 240 Any power of attorney mailed or forwarded from outside the territory of the People’s Republic of China by a foreign national, stateless person, or a foreign enterprise or organization that has no domicile in the People’s Republic of China to appoint a lawyer or any other person of the People’s Republic of China as an litigation representative must be authenticated by a notary office in the country where that person, enterprise, or organization has domicile and confirmed by the Chinese embassy or consulate stationed in that country or shall go through the notary formalities stipulated in the relevant bilateral treaties between China and that country before the power of attorney becomes effective.

Chapter 24 Jurisdiction

Article 241 A lawsuit brought against a defendant who has no domicile in the People’s Republic of China concerning a contract dispute or other disputes over property rights and interests, if the contract is signed or performed within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, or the object of the action is within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, or the defendant has detainable property within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, or the defendant has its representative agency, branch, or business agent within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, may be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the contract is signed or performed, the subject of the action is located, the defendant’s detainable property is located, the infringing act takes place, or the representative agency, branch or business agent is located.

Article 242 The parties to a disputed contract involving foreign elements or the parties having disputes over property rights and interests involving foreign elements may reach a written agreement to choose the people’s court located in the place that has actual connections with their disputes as the court to adjudicate their disputes. If a people’s court of the People’s Republic of China is chosen as the court having the jurisdiction, such a jurisdiction shall not contravene with the stipulations on the jurisdictions by level or the exclusive jurisdiction proscribed in this Law.

Article 243 If the defendant in a civil litigation involving foreign elements raises no objection to the jurisdiction of a people’s court and files his defense with the court, he shall be deemed to have accepted that this people’s court has jurisdiction over the case.

Article 244 Lawsuits brought for disputes arising from the performance of contracts for Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign contractual joint ventures, or Chinese-foreign cooperative exploration and development of the natural resources in the People’s Republic of China shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s courts of the People’s Republic of China.

Chapter 25 Service and Time Periods

Article 245 A people’s court may serve litigation documents to a party who has no domicile within the territory of the People’s Republic of China by the following methods:

(1) By the method specified in the international treaties concluded or acceded to by both the People’s Republic of China and the country where the recipient of service resides;

(2) Through diplomatic channels;

(3) By entrusting the service to the embassy or consulate of the People’s Republic of China stationed in the country where the recipient of service resides;

(4) Through the litigation representative who is empowered by the recipient of service to receive the service for it;

(5) Through the party’s representative agency, branch, or business agent whom are authorized to receive the service within the territory of the People’s Republic of China;

(6) Via postal service if the law of the country where the recipient of service resides permits serving litigation documents via postal service; in the event that no receipt is returned in six months after the date on which the document was posted, but various circumstances justify the assumption that it has been served, the service shall be deemed completed upon the expiration of the time limit; or

(7) By public announcement if none of the above-mentioned methods can be employed and the service shall be considered completed in six months after the date when the public announcement was issued.

Article 246 If a defendant has no domicile in the People’s Republic of China, the people’s court shall serve a copy of the motion of complaint on the defendant and notify him to file his motion of defense within 30 days after he receives the copy of the motion of complaint. Any extension of the time requested by the defendant shall be at the discretion of the people’s court.

Article 247 If any party who has no domicile in the People’s Republic of China is dissatisfied with a judgment or ruling made by a people’s court of first instance, he shall have the right to file an appeal within 30 days from the date the written judgment or ruling is served. The appellee shall forward his motion of defense within 30 days after he has received a copy of the motion of appeal. If a party is unable to file an appeal or forward a motion of defense within the period of time prescribed by law and therefore requests an extension of the period, the people’s court shall decide to approve or disapprove the request.

Article 248 The time period for handling a civil case involving foreign elements by the people’s court shall not be limited by the provisions of Article 135 and 159 of this Law.

Chapter 26 Property Preservation

Article 249 The parties may, according to the provisions of Article 92 of this Law, apply to the people’s court for property preservation.

The interested parties may, according to the provisions of Article 94 of this Law, apply to the people’s court for property preservation before a lawsuit is brought.

Article 250 After a people’s court rules to grant a request for property preservation before litigation, the applicant shall bring a lawsuit within 30 days. If he fails to bring a lawsuit within the time limit, the people’s court shall cancel the property preservation.

Article 251 After a people’s court rules to grant a request for property preservation, if a surety is provided by the person against whom application for the property preservation is made, the people’s court shall cancel the property preservation.

Article 252 If an application is wrongfully made, the applicant shall compensate the person against whom the application is made for losses incurred by the property preservation.

Article 253 If a property preserved by a people’s court needs to be kept under surveillance, it shall notify the unit concerned to be responsible for the surveillance, and the person against whom the application is made shall bear the expenses thus incurred.

Article 254 A ruling to cancel the preservation issued by a people’s court shall be carried out by an enforcement officer.

Chapter 27 Arbitration

Article 255 For disputes involving foreign economic, trade, transport, or maritime activities, if the parties have stipulated clauses on arbitration in their contracts or have subsequently reached written agreements on arbitration, they shall submit such disputes for arbitration to the foreign-affair arbitration institutions of the People’s Republic of China and shall not bring lawsuits in a people’s court.

If the parties have not stipulated clauses on arbitration in the contract or have not subsequently reached a written agreement on arbitration, they may file a lawsuit in a people’s court.

Article 256 If a party applies for the adoption of property preservation measure, the foreign-affair arbitration institution of the People’s Republic of China shall submit the party’s application to the intermediate people’s court located in the place where the person against whom the application for the property preservation is filed has his domicile or where the person’s property is located.

Article 257 If one party fails to comply with the award made by a foreign-affair arbitration institution of the People’s Republic of China, the other party may apply for the enforcement of the award to the intermediate people’s court located in the place where the person against whom the application for the enforcement is made has his domicile or where the property of the person is located.

Article 258 If a defendant provides evidence to prove that the arbitration award made by a foreign-affair arbitration institution of the People’s Republic of China involves any of the following circumstances, the people’s court shall, after examination and verification by a collegial bench, rule to disallow the enforcement of the award:

(1) The parties have not stipulated any clause regarding arbitration in their contract or have not subsequently reached a written agreement on arbitration;

(2) The defendant is not duly notified of the appointment of the arbitrators or the arbitration proceeding, or the defendant fails to express his defense due to the reasons for which he is not held responsible;

(3) The formation of the arbitration panel or the arbitration procedure is not in conformity with rules of arbitration; or

(4) The matters decided by arbitration exceed the scope of the arbitration agreement or the authority of the arbitration institution.

If a people’s court determines that the enforcement of an award will violate the social and public interest, the court shall make a ruling to disallow the enforcement of the arbitration award.

Article 259 If the enforcement of an arbitration award is disallowed, the parties may reach a written agreement on arbitration to re-submit their dispute for a new arbitration or file a lawsuit in a people’s court.

Chapter 28 Judicial Assistance

Article 260 According to the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China or the principle of reciprocity, the people’s courts of China and foreign courts may request each other’s assistance in the service of legal documents, the investigation and collection of evidence, or other litigation actions.

If any matter requested by a foreign court for assistance would impair the sovereignty, security, or social and public interests of the People’s Republic of China, the people’s court shall refuse the request.

Article 261 A request for providing of judicial assistance shall be conducted through channels stipulated in the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China; if there is no treaty regarding judicial assistance between China and the foreign country, such a request may be made through diplomatic channels.

A foreign embassy or consulate to the People’s Republic of China may serve legal documents to its citizens or conduct the investigation and collection of evidence on its citizens with the conditions of no laws of the People’s Republic of China to be violated and no compulsory measures to be taken.

Except for the circumstances proscribed in the preceding paragraph, no foreign organ or individual may, without obtaining an approval from the relevant authorities of the People’s Republic of China, serve documents or conduct any investigation and collection of evidence within the territory of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 262 A letter of request for judicial assistance and its annexes submitted by a foreign court to a people’s court shall be appended with Chinese translations or the texts in the language specified in the relevant international treaty.

A letter of request and its annexes submitted to a foreign court by a people’s court for judicial assistance shall also be appended with the translations in the language of the country or the texts in the language specified in the relevant international treaty.

Article 263 The judicial assistance provided by the people’s courts shall be carried out according to the procedure stipulated by the laws of the People’s Republic of China. If a foreign court request for judicial assistance to be conducted in a special method, it may be conducted as requested as long as the special method does not violate any laws of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 264 If a party applies for enforcement of a legally effective judgment or ruling made by a people’s court and the party subject to the enforcement or its property is not within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, the applicant may directly apply for the recognition and enforcement of the judgment or ruling to the foreign court that has jurisdiction over the case, or have the people’s court request a foreign court to recognize and enforce the judgment or ruling according to the relevant provisions of the international treaties concluded or acceded to by China or on the principle of reciprocity.

If a party applies for the enforcement of a legally effective arbitration award made by a foreign-affair arbitration institution of the People’s Republic of China and the party subject to the enforcement or its property is not within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, the applicant may directly apply for the recognition and enforcement of the arbitration award to the foreign court that has jurisdiction over the case.

Article 265 If a legally effective judgment or ruling made by a foreign court seeks the recognition and enforcement of a people’s court of the People’s Republic of China, the party may directly apply to the intermediate people’s court of the People’s Republic of China that has the jurisdiction over the case for the recognition and enforcement, or the foreign court may, according to the provisions of the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China or based on the principle of reciprocity, request the recognition and enforcement of a people’s court.

Article 266 After a people’s court of the People’s Republic of China reviews an application or pleading for the recognition and enforcement of a legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by a foreign court according to the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China or based on the principle of reciprocity, if the court considers that such a judgment or ruling does not contradict the basic principles of the laws of the People’s Republic of China nor violates the national, social, and public interest of China, the court may render a ruling to recognize its force. Where the enforcement is necessary, the court may issue an order to enforce a foreign judgment according to the relevant provisions of this Law. If a legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by a foreign court contradicts the basic principles of the law of the People’s Republic of China or the national, social, and public interest of China, the people’s court shall reject the application of recognition and enforcement.

Article 267 If an award made by a foreign arbitration institution needs the recognition and enforcement of a people’s court of the People’s Republic of China, the party shall directly apply to the intermediate people’s court located in the place where the party subject to the enforcement has its domicile or where its property is located. The people’s court shall deal with the matter according to the relevant provisions of the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China or on the principle of reciprocity.

Article 268 This Law shall become effective as of the date of promulgation, and the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China (for Trial Implementation) shall be annulled as of the same date.

 

 

中华人民共和国民事诉讼法

(1991年4月9日第七届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过 根据2007年10月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的决定》修正)

目 录

第一编 总 则

第一章 任务、适用范围和基本原则

第二章 管 辖

第一节 级别管辖

第二节 地域管辖

第三节 移送管辖和指定管辖

第三章 审判组织

第四章 回 避

第五章 诉讼参加人

第一节 当事人

第二节 诉讼代理人

第六章 证 据

第七章 期间、送达

第一节 期 间

第二节 送 达

第八章 调 解

第九章 财产保全和先予执行

第十章 对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施

第十一章 诉讼费用

第二编 审判程序

第十二章 第一审普通程序

第一节 起诉和受理

第二节 审理前的准备

第三节 开庭审理

第四节 诉讼中止和终结

第五节 判决和裁定

第十三章 简易程序

第十四章 第二审程序

第十五章 特别程序

第一节 一般规定

第二节 选民资格案件

第三节 宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件

第四节 认定公民无民事行为能力、限制民事行为能力案件

第五节 认定财产无主案件

第十六章 审判监督程序

第十七章 督促程序

第十八章 公示催告程序

第三编 执行程序

第十九章 一般规定

第二十章 执行的申请和移送

第二十一章 执行措施

第二十二章 执行中止和终结

第四编 涉外民事诉讼程序的特别规定

第二十三章 一般原则

第二十四章 管 辖

第二十五章 送达、期间

第二十六章 财产保全

第二十七章 仲 裁

第二十八章 司法协助

第一编 总 则

第一章 任务、适用范围和基本原则

第一条 【立法依据】中华人民共和国民事诉讼法以宪法为根据,结合我国民事审判工作的经验和实际情况制定。

第二条 【立法目的】中华人民共和国民事诉讼法的任务,是保护当事人行使诉讼权利,保证人民法院查明事实,分清是非,正确适用法律,及时审理民事案件,确认民事权利义务关系,制裁民事违法行为,保护当事人的合法权益,教育公民自觉遵守法律,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业顺利进行。

第三条 【适用范围】人民法院受理公民之间、法人之间、其他组织之间以及他们相互之间因财产关系和人身关系提起的民事诉讼,适用本法的规定。

第四条 【空间效力】凡在中华人民共和国领域内进行民事诉讼,必须遵守本法。

第五条 【外国人诉讼地位】外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,同中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织有同等的诉讼权利义务。

外国法院对中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织的民事诉讼权利加以限制的,中华人民共和国人民法院对该国公民、企业和组织的民事诉讼权利,实行对等原则。

第六条 【法院独立审判】民事案件的审判权由人民法院行使。

人民法院依照法律规定对民事案件独立进行审判,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

第七条 【审理原则】人民法院审理民事案件,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。

第八条 【诉讼权利平等】民事诉讼当事人有平等的诉讼权利。人民法院审理民事案件,应当保障和便利当事人行使诉讼权利,对当事人在适用法律上一律平等。

第九条 【法院调解】人民法院审理民事案件,应当根据自愿和合法的原则进行调解;调解不成的,应当及时判决。

第十条 【审判制度】人民法院审理民事案件,依照法律规定实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。

第十一条 【语言文字】各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行民事诉讼的权利。

在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书。

人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。

第十二条 【辩论权】人民法院审理民事案件时,当事人有权进行辩论。

第十三条 【处分权】当事人有权在法律规定的范围内处分自己的民事权利和诉讼权利。

第十四条 【法律监督】人民检察院有权对民事审判活动实行法律监督。

第十五条 【支持起诉】机关、社会团体、企业事业单位对损害国家、集体或者个人民事权益的行为,可以支持受损害的单位或者个人向人民法院起诉。

第十六条 【人民调解】人民调解委员会是在基层人民政府和基层人民法院指导下,调解民间纠纷的群众性组织。

人民调解委员会依照法律规定,根据自愿原则进行调解。当事人对调解达成的协议应当履行;不愿调解、调解不成或者反悔的,可以向人民法院起诉。

人民调解委员会调解民间纠纷,如有违背法律的,人民法院应当予以纠正。

第十七条 【变通规定】民族自治地方的人民代表大会根据宪法和本法的原则,结合当地民族的具体情况,可以制定变通或者补充的规定。自治区的规定,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准。自治州、自治县的规定,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。

第二章 管 辖

第一节 级别管辖

第十八条 【基层法院管辖】基层人民法院管辖第一审民事案件,但本法另有规定的除外。

第十九条 【中级法院管辖】中级人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件:

(一)重大涉外案件;

(二)在本辖区有重大影响的案件;

(三)最高人民法院确定由中级人民法院管辖的案件。

第二十条 【高级法院管辖】高级人民法院管辖在本辖区有重大影响的第一审民事案件。

第二十一条 【最高法院管辖】最高人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件:

(一)在全国有重大影响的案件;

(二)认为应当由本院审理的案件。

第二节 地域管辖

第二十二条 【一般地域管辖】对公民提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖;被告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由经常居住地人民法院管辖。

对法人或者其他组织提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。

同一诉讼的几个被告住所地、经常居住地在两个以上人民法院辖区的,各该人民法院都有管辖权。

第二十三条 【特别规定】下列民事诉讼,由原告住所地人民法院管辖;原告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由原告经常居住地人民法院管辖:

(一)对不在中华人民共和国领域内居住的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼;

(二)对下落不明或者宣告失踪的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼;

(三)对被劳动教养的人提起的诉讼;

(四)对被监禁的人提起的诉讼。

第二十四条 【合同纠纷管辖】因合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地人民法院管辖。

第二十五条 【协议管辖】合同的双方当事人可以在书面合同中协议选择被告住所地、合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地人民法院管辖,但不得违反本法对级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。

第二十六条 【保险纠纷管辖】因保险合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者保险标的物所在地人民法院管辖。

第二十七条 【票据纠纷管辖】因票据纠纷提起的诉讼,由票据支付地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第二十八条 【运输纠纷管辖】因铁路、公路、水上、航空运输和联合运输合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由运输始发地、目的地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第二十九条 【侵权行为管辖】因侵权行为提起的诉讼,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第三十条 【交通事故管辖】因铁路、公路、水上和航空事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由事故发生地或者车辆、船舶最先到达地、航空器最先降落地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第三十一条 【海损事故管辖】因船舶碰撞或者其他海事损害事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由碰撞发生地、碰撞船舶最先到达地、加害船舶被扣留地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第三十二条 【海难救助管辖】因海难救助费用提起的诉讼,由救助地或者被救助船舶最先到达地人民法院管辖。

第三十三条 【共同海损管辖】因共同海损提起的诉讼,由船舶最先到达地、共同海损理算地或者航程终止地的人民法院管辖。

第三十四条 【专属管辖】下列案件,由本条规定的人民法院专属管辖:

(一)因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖;

(二)因港口作业中发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由港口所在地人民法院管辖;

(三)因继承遗产纠纷提起的诉讼,由被继承人死亡时住所地或者主要遗产所在地人民法院管辖。

第三十五条 【选择管辖】两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的诉讼,原告可以向其中一个人民法院起诉;原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院起诉的,由最先立案的人民法院管辖。

第三节 移送管辖和指定管辖

第三十六条 【移送管辖】人民法院发现受理的案件不属于本院管辖的,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院,受移送的人民法院应当受理。受移送的人民法院认为受移送的案件依照规定不属于本院管辖的,应当报请上级人民法院指定管辖,不得再自行移送。

第三十七条 【指定管辖】有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因,不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖。

人民法院之间因管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决;协商解决不了的,报请它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。

第三十八条 【管辖异议】人民法院受理案件后,当事人对管辖权有异议的,应当在提交答辩状期间提出。人民法院对当事人提出的异议,应当审查。异议成立的,裁定将案件移送有管辖权的人民法院;异议不成立的,裁定驳回。

第三十九条 【管辖转移】上级人民法院有权审理下级人民法院管辖的第一审民事案件,也可以把本院管辖的第一审民事案件交下级人民法院审理。

下级人民法院对它所管辖的第一审民事案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审理的,可以报请上级人民法院审理。

第三章 审判组织

第四十条 【一审审判组织】人民法院审理第一审民事案件,由审判员、陪审员共同组成合议庭或者由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。

适用简易程序审理的民事案件,由审判员一人独任审理。

陪审员在执行陪审职务时,与审判员有同等的权利义务。

第四十一条 【二、重、再审审判组织】人民法院审理第二审民事案件,由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。

发回重审的案件,原审人民法院应当按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭。

审理再审案件,原来是第一审的,按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭;原来是第二审的或者是上级人民法院提审的,按照第二审程序另行组成合议庭。

第四十二条 【审判长】合议庭的审判长由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任;院长或者庭长参加审判的,由院长或者庭长担任。

第四十三条 【评议原则】合议庭评议案件,实行少数服从多数的原则。评议应当制作笔录,由合议庭成员签名。评议中的不同意见,必须如实记入笔录。

第四十四条 【审判人员义务】审判人员应当依法秉公办案。

审判人员不得接受当事人及其诉讼代理人请客送礼。

审判人员有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,应当追究法律责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第四章 回 避

第四十五条 【适用情形】审判人员有下列情形之一的,必须回避,当事人有权用口头或者书面方式申请他们回避:

(一)是本案当事人或者当事人、诉讼代理人的近亲属;

(二)与本案有利害关系;

(三)与本案当事人有其他关系,可能影响对案件公正审理的。

前款规定,适用于书记员、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人。

第四十六条 【回避申请】当事人提出回避申请,应当说明理由,在案件开始审理时提出;回避事由在案件开始审理后知道的,也可以在法庭辩论终结前提出。

被申请回避的人员在人民法院作出是否回避的决定前,应当暂停参与本案的工作,但案件需要采取紧急措施的除外。

第四十七条 【回避决定】院长担任审判长时的回避,由审判委员会决定;审判人员的回避,由院长决定;其他人员的回避,由审判长决定。

第四十八条 【回避时限及后果】人民法院对当事人提出的回避申请,应当在申请提出的三日内,以口头或者书面形式作出决定。申请人对决定不服的,可以在接到决定时申请复议一次。复议期间,被申请回避的人员,不停止参与本案的工作。人民法院对复议申请,应当在三日内作出复议决定,并通知复议申请人。

第五章 诉讼参加人

第一节 当事人

第四十九条 【当事人范围】公民、法人和其他组织可以作为民事诉讼的当事人。

法人由其法定代表人进行诉讼。其他组织由其主要负责人进行诉讼。

第五十条 【诉讼权利义务】当事人有权委托代理人,提出回避申请,收集、提供证据,进行辩论,请求调解,提起上诉,申请执行。

当事人可以查阅本案有关材料,并可以复制本案有关材料和法律文书。查阅、复制本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。

当事人必须依法行使诉讼权利,遵守诉讼秩序,履行发生法律效力的判决书、裁定书和调解书。

第五十一条 【自行和解】双方当事人可以自行和解。

第五十二条 【诉请变更】原告可以放弃或者变更诉讼请求。被告可以承认或者反驳诉讼请求,有权提起反诉。

第五十三条 【共同诉讼】当事人一方或者双方为二人以上,其诉讼标的是共同的,或者诉讼标的是同一种类、人民法院认为可以合并审理并经当事人同意的,为共同诉讼。

共同诉讼的一方当事人对诉讼标的有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为经其他共同诉讼人承认,对其他共同诉讼人发生效力;对诉讼标的没有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为对其他共同诉讼人不发生效力。

第五十四条 【代表人诉讼】当事人一方人数众多的共同诉讼,可以由当事人推选代表人进行诉讼。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。

第五十五条 【集团诉讼】诉讼标的是同一种类、当事人一方人数众多在起诉时人数尚未确定的,人民法院可以发出公告,说明案件情况和诉讼请求,通知权利人在一定期间向人民法院登记。

向人民法院登记的权利人可以推选代表人进行诉讼;推选不出代表人的,人民法院可以与参加登记的权利人商定代表人。

代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。

人民法院作出的判决、裁定,对参加登记的全体权利人发生效力。未参加登记的权利人在诉讼时效期间提起诉讼的,适用该判决、裁定。

第五十六条 【诉讼第三人】对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。

对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人虽然没有独立请求权,但案件处理结果同他有法律上的利害关系的,可以申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知他参加诉讼。人民法院判决承担民事责任的第三人,有当事人的诉讼权利义务。

第二节 诉讼代理人

第五十七条 【法定代理人】无诉讼行为能力人由他的监护人作为法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人之间互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。

第五十八条 【委托代理人】当事人、法定代理人可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。

律师、当事人的近亲属、有关的社会团体或者所在单位推荐的人、经人民法院许可的其他公民,都可以被委托为诉讼代理人。

第五十九条 【授权委托书】委托他人代为诉讼,必须向人民法院提交由委托人签名或者盖章的授权委托书。

授权委托书必须记明委托事项和权限。诉讼代理人代为承认、放弃、变更诉讼请求,进行和解,提起反诉或者上诉,必须有委托人的特别授权。

侨居在国外的中华人民共和国公民从国外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,必须经中华人民共和国驻该国的使领馆证明;没有使领馆的,由与中华人民共和国有外交关系的第三国驻该国的使领馆证明,再转由中华人民共和国驻该第三国使领馆证明,或者由当地的爱国华侨团体证明。

第六十条 【代理权变更、解除】诉讼代理人的权限如果变更或者解除,当事人应当书面告知人民法院,并由人民法院通知对方当事人。

第六十一条 【代理人权利】代理诉讼的律师和其他诉讼代理人有权调查收集证据,可以查阅本案有关材料。查阅本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。

第六十二条 【离婚诉讼代理】离婚案件有诉讼代理人的,本人除不能表达意志的以外,仍应出庭;确因特殊情况无法出庭的,必须向人民法院提交书面意见。

第六章 证 据

第六十三条 【证据种类】证据有下列几种:

(一)书证;

(二)物证;

(三)视听资料;

(四)证人证言;

(五)当事人的陈述;

(六)鉴定结论;

(七)勘验笔录。

以上证据必须查证属实,才能作为认定事实的根据。

第六十四条 【举证责任】当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。

当事人及其诉讼代理人因客观原因不能自行收集的证据,或者人民法院认为审理案件需要的证据,人民法院应当调查收集。

人民法院应当按照法定程序,全面地、客观地审查核实证据。

第六十五条 【查证责任】人民法院有权向有关单位和个人调查取证,有关单位和个人不得拒绝。

人民法院对有关单位和个人提出的证明文书,应当辨别真伪,审查确定其效力。

第六十六条 【证据审查】证据应当在法庭上出示,并由当事人互相质证。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的证据应当保密,需要在法庭出示的,不得在公开开庭时出示。

第六十七条 【公证证据】经过法定程序公证证明的法律行为、法律事实和文书,人民法院应当作为认定事实的根据。但有相反证据足以推翻公证证明的除外。

第六十八条 【书证物证】书证应当提交原件。物证应当提交原物。提交原件或者原物确有困难的,可以提交复制品、照片、副本、节录本。

提交外文书证,必须附有中文译本。

第六十九条 【视听资料】人民法院对视听资料,应当辨别真伪,并结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。

第七十条 【证人条件、义务】凡是知道案件情况的单位和个人,都有义务出庭作证。有关单位的负责人应当支持证人作证。证人确有困难不能出庭的,经人民法院许可,可以提交书面证言。

不能正确表达意志的人,不能作证。

第七十一条 【当事人陈述】人民法院对当事人的陈述,应当结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。

当事人拒绝陈述的,不影响人民法院根据证据认定案件事实。

第七十二条 【鉴定结论】人民法院对专门性问题认为需要鉴定的,应当交由法定鉴定部门鉴定;没有法定鉴定部门的,由人民法院指定的鉴定部门鉴定。

鉴定部门及其指定的鉴定人有权了解进行鉴定所需要的案件材料,必要时可以询问当事人、证人。

鉴定部门和鉴定人应当提出书面鉴定结论,在鉴定书上签名或者盖章。鉴定人鉴定的,应当由鉴定人所在单位加盖印章,证明鉴定人身份。

第七十三条 【勘验程序】勘验物证或者现场,勘验人必须出示人民法院的证件,并邀请当地基层组织或者当事人所在单位派人参加。当事人或者当事人的成年家属应当到场,拒不到场的,不影响勘验的进行。

有关单位和个人根据人民法院的通知,有义务保护现场,协助勘验工作。

勘验人应当将勘验情况和结果制作笔录,由勘验人、当事人和被邀参加人签名或者盖章。

第七十四条 【证据保全】在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,诉讼参加人可以向人民法院申请保全证据,人民法院也可以主动采取保全措施。

第七章 期间、送达

第一节 期 间

第七十五条 【期间种类和计算】期间包括法定期间和人民法院指定的期间。

期间以时、日、月、年计算。期间开始的时和日,不计算在期间内。

期间届满的最后一日是节假日的,以节假日后的第一日为期间届满的日期。

期间不包括在途时间,诉讼文书在期满前交邮的,不算过期。

第七十六条 【期间耽误和顺延】当事人因不可抗拒的事由或者其他正当理由耽误期限的,在障碍消除后的十日内,可以申请顺延期限,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第二节 送 达

第七十七条 【送达回证】送达诉讼文书必须有送达回证,由受送达人在送达回证上记明收到日期,签名或者盖章。

受送达人在送达回证上的签收日期为送达日期。

第七十八条 【直接送达】送达诉讼文书,应当直接送交受送达人。受送达人是公民的,本人不在交他的同住成年家属签收;受送达人是法人或者其他组织的,应当由法人的法定代表人、其他组织的主要负责人或者该法人、组织负责收件的人签收;受送达人有诉讼代理人的,可以送交其代理人签收;受送达人已向人民法院指定代收人的,送交代收人签收。

受送达人的同住成年家属,法人或者其他组织的负责收件的人,诉讼代理人或者代收人在送达回证上签收的日期为送达日期。

第七十九条 【留置送达】受送达人或者他的同住成年家属拒绝接收诉讼文书的,送达人应当邀请有关基层组织或者所在单位的代表到场,说明情况,在送达回证上记明拒收事由和日期,由送达人、见证人签名或者盖章,把诉讼文书留在受送达人的住所,即视为送达。

第八十条 【委托及邮寄送达】直接送达诉讼文书有困难的,可以委托其他人民法院代为送达,或者邮寄送达。邮寄送达的,以回执上注明的收件日期为送达日期。

第八十一条 【转交送达之一】受送达人是军人的,通过其所在部队团以上单位的政治机关转交。

第八十二条 【转交送达之二】受送达人是被监禁的,通过其所在监所或者劳动改造单位转交。

受送达人是被劳动教养的,通过其所在劳动教养单位转交。

第八十三条 【转交送达期间】代为转交的机关、单位收到诉讼文书后,必须立即交受送达人签收,以在送达回证上的签收日期,为送达日期。

第八章 调 解

第八十五条 【调解的原则】人民法院审理民事案件,根据当事人自愿的原则,在事实清楚的基础上,分清是非,进行调解。

第八十六条 【调解组织形式】人民法院进行调解,可以由审判员一人主持,也可以由合议庭主持,并尽可能就地进行。

人民法院进行调解,可以用简便方式通知当事人、证人到庭。

第八十七条 【协助调解】人民法院进行调解,可以邀请有关单位和个人协助。被邀请的单位和个人,应当协助人民法院进行调解。

第八十八条 【调解协议】调解达成协议,必须双方自愿,不得强迫。调解协议的内容不得违反法律规定。

第八十九条 【调解书】调解达成协议,人民法院应当制作调解书。调解书应当写明诉讼请求、案件的事实和调解结果。

调解书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章,送达双方当事人。

调解书经双方当事人签收后,即具有法律效力。

第九十条 【不制作调解书】下列案件调解达成协议,人民法院可以不制作调解书:

(一)调解和好的离婚案件;

(二)调解维持收养关系的案件;

(三)能够即时履行的案件;

(四)其他不需要制作调解书的案件。

对不需要制作调解书的协议,应当记入笔录,由双方当事人、审判人员、书记员签名或者盖章后,即具有法律效力。

第九十一条 【调解失败】调解未达成协议或者调解书送达前一方反悔的,人民法院应当及时判决。

第九章 财产保全和先予执行

第九十二条 【适用条件和程序】人民法院对于可能因当事人一方的行为或者其他原因,使判决不能执行或者难以执行的案件,可以根据对方当事人的申请,作出财产保全的裁定;当事人没有提出申请的,人民法院在必要时也可以裁定采取财产保全措施。

人民法院采取财产保全措施,可以责令申请人提供担保;申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。

人民法院接受申请后,对情况紧急的,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取财产保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。

第九十三条 【诉前财产保全】利害关系人因情况紧急,不立即申请财产保全将会使其合法权益受到难以弥补的损害的,可以在起诉前向人民法院申请采取财产保全措施。申请人应当提供担保,不提供担保的,驳回申请。

人民法院接受申请后,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取财产保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。

申请人在人民法院采取保全措施后十五日内不起诉的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第九十四条 【请求范围及措施】财产保全限于请求的范围,或者与本案有关的财物。

财产保全采取查封、扣押、冻结或者法律规定的其他方法。

人民法院冻结财产后,应当立即通知被冻结财产的人。

财产已被查封、冻结的,不得重复查封、冻结。

第九十五条 【保全解除】被申请人提供担保的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第九十六条 【保全错误补救】申请有错误的,申请人应当赔偿被申请人因财产保全所遭受的损失。

第九十七条 【先予执行范围】人民法院对下列案件,根据当事人的申请,可以裁定先予执行:

(一)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费、抚恤金、医疗费用的;

(二)追索劳动报酬的;

(三)因情况紧急需要先予执行的。

第九十八条 【先予执行条件】人民法院裁定先予执行的,应当符合下列条件:

(一)当事人之间权利义务关系明确,不先予执行将严重影响申请人的生活或者生产经营的;

(二)被申请人有履行能力。

人民法院可以责令申请人提供担保,申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。申请人败诉的,应当赔偿被申请人因先予执行遭受的财产损失。

第九十九条 【复议】当事人对财产保全或者先予执行的裁定不服的,可以申请复议一次。复议期间不停止裁定的执行。

第十章 对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施

第一百条 【拘传适用】人民法院对必须到庭的被告,经两次传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以拘传。

第一百零一条 【强制措施之一】诉讼参与人和其他人应当遵守法庭规则。

人民法院对违反法庭规则的人,可以予以训诫,责令退出法庭或者予以罚款、拘留。

人民法院对哄闹、冲击法庭,侮辱、诽谤、威胁、殴打审判人员,严重扰乱法庭秩序的人,依法追究刑事责任;情节较轻的,予以罚款、拘留。

第一百零二条 【强制措施之二】诉讼参与人或者其他人有下列行为之一的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)伪造、毁灭重要证据,妨碍人民法院审理案件的;

(二)以暴力、威胁、贿买方法阻止证人作证或者指使、贿买、胁迫他人作伪证的;

(三)隐藏、转移、变卖、毁损已被查封、扣押的财产,或者已被清点并责令其保管的财产,转移已被冻结的财产的;

(四)对司法工作人员、诉讼参加人、证人、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人、协助执行的人,进行侮辱、诽谤、诬陷、殴打或者打击报复的;

(五)以暴力、威胁或者其他方法阻碍司法工作人员执行职务的;

(六)拒不履行人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定的。

人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第一百零三条 【强制措施之三】有义务协助调查、执行的单位有下列行为之一的,人民法院除责令其履行协助义务外,并可以予以罚款:

(一)有关单位拒绝或者妨碍人民法院调查取证的;

(二)银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助查询、冻结或者划拨存款的;

(三)有关单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助扣留被执行人的收入、办理有关财产权证照转移手续、转交有关票证、证照或者其他财产的;

(四)其他拒绝协助执行的。

人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款;对仍不履行协助义务的,可以予以拘留;并可以向监察机关或者有关机关提出予以纪律处分的司法建议。

第一百零四条 【罚款、拘留适用】对个人的罚款金额,为人民币一万元以下。对单位的罚款金额,为人民币一万元以上三十万元以下。

拘留的期限,为十五日以下。

被拘留的人,由人民法院交公安机关看管。在拘留期间,被拘留人承认并改正错误的,人民法院可以决定提前解除拘留。

第一百零五条 【强制措施程序】拘传、罚款、拘留必须经院长批准。

拘传应当发拘传票。

罚款、拘留应当用决定书。对决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议一次。复议期间不停止执行。

第一百零六条 【强制措施决定权】采取对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施必须由人民法院决定。任何单位和个人采取非法拘禁他人或者非法私自扣押他人财产追索债务的,应当依法追究刑事责任,或者予以拘留、罚款。

第十一章 诉讼费用

第一百零七条 【诉讼费用的交纳】当事人进行民事诉讼,应当按照规定交纳案件受理费。财产案件除交纳案件受理费外,并按照规定交纳其他诉讼费用。

当事人交纳诉讼费用确有困难的,可以按照规定向人民法院申请缓交、减交或者免交。

收取诉讼费用的办法另行制定。

第二编 审判程序

第十二章 第一审普通程序

第一节 起诉和受理

第一百零八条 【起诉实质要件】起诉必须符合下列条件:

(一)原告是与本案有直接利害关系的公民、法人和其他组织;

(二)有明确的被告;

(三)有具体的诉讼请求和事实、理由;

(四)属于人民法院受理民事诉讼的范围和受诉人民法院管辖。

第一百零九条 【起诉形式要件】起诉应当向人民法院递交起诉状,并按照被告人数提出副本。

书写起诉状确有困难的,可以口头起诉,由人民法院记入笔录,并告知对方当事人。

第一百一十条 【起诉状】起诉状应当记明下列事项:

(一)当事人的姓名、性别、年龄、民族、职业、工作单位和住所,法人或者其他组织的名称、住所和法定代表人或者主要负责人的姓名、职务;

(二)诉讼请求和所根据的事实与理由;

(三)证据和证据来源,证人姓名和住所。

第一百一十一条 【起诉审查】人民法院对符合本法第一百零八条的起诉,必须受理;对下列起诉,分别情形,予以处理:

(一)依照行政诉讼法的规定,属于行政诉讼受案范围的,告知原告提起行政诉讼;

(二)依照法律规定,双方当事人对合同纠纷自愿达成书面仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁、不得向人民法院起诉的,告知原告向仲裁机构申请仲裁;

(三)依照法律规定,应当由其他机关处理的争议,告知原告向有关机关申请解决;

(四)对不属于本院管辖的案件,告知原告向有管辖权的人民法院起诉;

(五)对判决、裁定已经发生法律效力的案件,当事人又起诉的,告知原告按照申诉处理,但人民法院准许撤诉的裁定除外;

(六)依照法律规定,在一定期限内不得起诉的案件,在不得起诉的期限内起诉的,不予受理;

(七)判决不准离婚和调解和好的离婚案件,判决、调解维持收养关系的案件,没有新情况、新理由,原告在六个月内又起诉的,不予受理。

第一百一十二条 【审查期限】人民法院收到起诉状或者口头起诉,经审查,认为符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内立案,并通知当事人;认为不符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内裁定不予受理;原告对裁定不服的,可以提起上诉。

第二节 审理前的准备

第一百一十三条 【诉讼文书送达】人民法院应当在立案之日起五日内将起诉状副本发送被告,被告在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。

被告提出答辩状的,人民法院应当在收到之日起五日内将答辩状副本发送原告。被告不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。

第一百一十四条 【权利义务告知】人民法院对决定受理的案件,应当在受理案件通知书和应诉通知书中向当事人告知有关的诉讼权利义务,或者口头告知。

第一百一十五条 【合议庭成员告知】合议庭组成人员确定后,应当在三日内告知当事人。

第一百一十六条 【审核取证】审判人员必须认真审核诉讼材料,调查收集必要的证据。

第一百一十七条 【调查程序】人民法院派出人员进行调查时,应当向被调查人出示证件。

调查笔录经被调查人校阅后,由被调查人、调查人签名或者盖章。

第一百一十八条 【委托调查】人民法院在必要时可以委托外地人民法院调查。

委托调查,必须提出明确的项目和要求。受委托人民法院可以主动补充调查。

受委托人民法院收到委托书后,应当在三十日内完成调查。因故不能完成的,应当在上述期限内函告委托人民法院。

第一百一十九条 【当事人追加】必须共同进行诉讼的当事人没有参加诉讼的,人民法院应当通知其参加诉讼。

第三节 开庭审理

第一百二十条 【审理方式】人民法院审理民事案件,除涉及国家秘密、个人隐私或者法律另有规定的以外,应当公开进行。

离婚案件,涉及商业秘密的案件,当事人申请不公开审理的,可以不公开审理。

第一百二十一条 【巡回审理】人民法院审理民事案件,根据需要进行巡回审理,就地办案。

第一百二十二条 【开庭通知及公告】人民法院审理民事案件,应当在开庭三日前通知当事人和其他诉讼参与人。公开审理的,应当公告当事人姓名、案由和开庭的时间、地点。

第一百二十三条 【庭前准备】开庭审理前,书记员应当查明当事人和其他诉讼参与人是否到庭,宣布法庭纪律。

开庭审理时,由审判长核对当事人,宣布案由,宣布审判人员、书记员名单,告知当事人有关的诉讼权利义务,询问当事人是否提出回避申请。

第一百二十四条 【法庭调查顺序】法庭调查按照下列顺序进行:

(一)当事人陈述;

(二)告知证人的权利义务,证人作证,宣读未到庭的证人证言;

(三)出示书证、物证和视听资料;

(四)宣读鉴定结论;

(五)宣读勘验笔录。

第一百二十五条 【当事人庭审权利】当事人在法庭上可以提出新的证据。

当事人经法庭许可,可以向证人、鉴定人、勘验人发问。

当事人要求重新进行调查、鉴定或者勘验的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第一百二十六条 【诉的合并】原告增加诉讼请求,被告提出反诉,第三人提出与本案有关的诉讼请求,可以合并审理。

第一百二十七条 【法庭辩论】法庭辩论按照下列顺序进行:

(一)原告及其诉讼代理人发言;

(二)被告及其诉讼代理人答辩;

(三)第三人及其诉讼代理人发言或者答辩;

(四)互相辩论。

法庭辩论终结,由审判长按照原告、被告、第三人的先后顺序征询各方最后意见。

第一百二十八条 【庭审调解】法庭辩论终结,应当依法作出判决。判决前能够调解的,还可以进行调解,调解不成的,应当及时判决。

第一百二十九条 【按撤诉处理】原告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,可以按撤诉处理;被告反诉的,可以缺席判决。

第一百三十条 【缺席判决】被告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,可以缺席判决。

第一百三十一条 【撤诉】宣判前,原告申请撤诉的,是否准许,由人民法院裁定。

人民法院裁定不准许撤诉的,原告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以缺席判决。

第一百三十二条 【延期审理】有下列情形之一的,可以延期开庭审理:

(一)必须到庭的当事人和其他诉讼参与人有正当理由没有到庭的;

(二)当事人临时提出回避申请的;

(三)需要通知新的证人到庭,调取新的证据,重新鉴定、勘验,或者需要补充调查的;

(四)其他应当延期的情形。

第一百三十三条 【法庭笔录】书记员应当将法庭审理的全部活动记入笔录,由审判人员和书记员签名。

法庭笔录应当当庭宣读,也可以告知当事人和其他诉讼参与人当庭或者在五日内阅读。当事人和其他诉讼参与人认为对自己的陈述记录有遗漏或者差错的,有权申请补正。如果不予补正,应当将申请记录在案。

法庭笔录由当事人和其他诉讼参与人签名或者盖章。拒绝签名盖章的,记明情况附卷。

第一百三十四条 【宣判】人民法院对公开审理或者不公开审理的案件,一律公开宣告判决。

当庭宣判的,应当在十日内发送判决书;定期宣判的,宣判后立即发给判决书。

宣告判决时,必须告知当事人上诉权利、上诉期限和上诉的法院。

宣告离婚判决,必须告知当事人在判决发生法律效力前不得另行结婚。

第一百三十五条 【审限】人民法院适用普通程序审理的案件,应当在立案之日起六个月内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准,可以延长六个月;还需要延长的,报请上级人民法院批准。

第四节 诉讼中止和终结

第一百三十六条 【诉讼中止】有下列情形之一的,中止诉讼:

(一)一方当事人死亡,需要等待继承人表明是否参加诉讼的;

(二)一方当事人丧失诉讼行为能力,尚未确定法定代理人的;

(三)作为一方当事人的法人或者其他组织终止,尚未确定权利义务承受人的;

(四)一方当事人因不可抗拒的事由,不能参加诉讼的;

(五)本案必须以另一案的审理结果为依据,而另一案尚未审结的;

(六)其他应当中止诉讼的情形。

中止诉讼的原因消除后,恢复诉讼。

第一百三十七条 【诉讼终结】有下列情形之一的,终结诉讼:

(一)原告死亡,没有继承人,或者继承人放弃诉讼权利的;

(二)被告死亡,没有遗产,也没有应当承担义务的人的;

(三)离婚案件一方当事人死亡的;

(四)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费以及解除收养关系案件的一方当事人死亡的。

第五节 判决和裁定

第一百三十八条 【判决书】判决书应当写明:

(一)案由、诉讼请求、争议的事实和理由;

(二)判决认定的事实、理由和适用的法律依据;

(三)判决结果和诉讼费用的负担;

(四)上诉期间和上诉的法院。

判决书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。

第一百三十九条 【先行判决】人民法院审理案件,其中一部分事实已经清楚,可以就该部分先行判决。

第一百四十条 【裁定范围】裁定适用于下列范围:

(一)不予受理;

(二)对管辖权有异议的;

(三)驳回起诉;

(四)财产保全和先予执行;

(五)准许或者不准许撤诉;

(六)中止或者终结诉讼;

(七)补正判决书中的笔误;

(八)中止或者终结执行;

(九)不予执行仲裁裁决;

(十)不予执行公证机关赋予强制执行效力的债权文书;

(十一)其他需要裁定解决的事项。

对前款第(一)、(二)、(三)项裁定,可以上诉。

裁定书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。口头裁定的,记入笔录。

第一百四十一条 【生效裁判】最高人民法院的判决、裁定,以及依法不准上诉或者超过上诉期没有上诉的判决、裁定,是发生法律效力的判决、裁定。

第十三章 简易程序

第一百四十二条 【适用范围】基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理事实清楚、权利义务关系明确、争议不大的简单的民事案件,适用本章规定。

第一百四十三条 【起诉方式】对简单的民事案件,原告可以口头起诉。

当事人双方可以同时到基层人民法院或者它派出的法庭,请求解决纠纷。基层人民法院或者它派出的法庭可以当即审理,也可以另定日期审理。

第一百四十四条 【传唤方式】基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理简单的民事案件,可以用简便方式随时传唤当事人、证人。

第一百四十五条 【审判组织及程序】简单的民事案件由审判员一人独任审理,并不受本法第一百二十二条、第一百二十四条、第一百二十七条规定的限制。

第一百四十六条 【审限】人民法院适用简易程序审理案件,应当在立案之日起三个月内审结。

第十四章 第二审程序

第一百四十七条 【上诉权】当事人不服地方人民法院第一审判决的,有权在判决书送达之日起十五日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。

当事人不服地方人民法院第一审裁定的,有权在裁定书送达之日起十日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。

第一百四十八条 【上诉状】上诉应当递交上诉状。上诉状的内容,应当包括当事人的姓名,法人的名称及其法定代表人的姓名或者其他组织的名称及其主要负责人的姓名;原审人民法院名称、案件的编号和案由;上诉的请求和理由。

第一百四十九条 【上诉方式】上诉状应当通过原审人民法院提出,并按照对方当事人或者代表人的人数提出副本。

当事人直接向第二审人民法院上诉的,第二审人民法院应当在五日内将上诉状移交原审人民法院。

第一百五十条 【原审法院工作】原审人民法院收到上诉状,应当在五日内将上诉状副本送达对方当事人,对方当事人在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。人民法院应当在收到答辩状之日起五日内将副本送达上诉人。对方当事人不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。

原审人民法院收到上诉状、答辩状,应当在五日内连同全部案卷和证据,报送第二审人民法院。

第一百五十一条 【审理范围】第二审人民法院应当对上诉请求的有关事实和适用法律进行审查。

第一百五十二条 【审理方式】第二审人民法院对上诉案件,应当组成合议庭,开庭审理。经过阅卷和调查,询问当事人,在事实核对清楚后,合议庭认为不需要开庭审理的,也可以径行判决、裁定。

第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,可以在本院进行,也可以到案件发生地或者原审人民法院所在地进行。

第一百五十三条 【二审裁判】第二审人民法院对上诉案件,经过审理,按照下列情形,分别处理:

(一)原判决认定事实清楚,适用法律正确的,判决驳回上诉,维持原判决;

(二)原判决适用法律错误的,依法改判;

(三)原判决认定事实错误,或者原判决认定事实不清,证据不足,裁定撤销原判决,发回原审人民法院重审,或者查清事实后改判;

(四)原判决违反法定程序,可能影响案件正确判决的,裁定撤销原判决,发回原审人民法院重审。

当事人对重审案件的判决、裁定,可以上诉。

第一百五十四条 【裁定上诉处理】第二审人民法院对不服第一审人民法院裁定的上诉案件的处理,一律使用裁定。

第一百五十五条 【二审调解】第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,可以进行调解。调解达成协议,应当制作调解书,由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。调解书送达后,原审人民法院的判决即视为撤销。

第一百五十六条 【撤回上诉】第二审人民法院判决宣告前,上诉人申请撤回上诉的,是否准许,由第二审人民法院裁定。

第一百五十七条 【二审适用程序】第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,除依照本章规定外,适用第一审普通程序。

第一百五十八条 【二审裁判效力】第二审人民法院的判决、裁定,是终审的判决、裁定。

第一百五十九条 【二审审限】人民法院审理对判决的上诉案件,应当在第二审立案之日起三个月内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。

人民法院审理对裁定的上诉案件,应当在第二审立案之日起三十日内作出终审裁定。

第十五章 特别程序

第一节 一般规定

第一百六十条 【适用范围】人民法院审理选民资格案件、宣告失踪或者宣告死亡案件、认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力案件和认定财产无主案件,适用本章规定。本章没有规定的,适用本法和其他法律的有关规定。

第一百六十一条 【审判组织】依照本章程序审理的案件,实行一审终审。选民资格案件或者重大、疑难的案件,由审判员组成合议庭审理;其他案件由审判员一人独任审理。

第一百六十二条 【特别程序转化】人民法院在依照本章程序审理案件的过程中,发现本案属于民事权益争议的,应当裁定终结特别程序,并告知利害关系人可以另行起诉。

第一百六十三条 【审限】人民法院适用特别程序审理的案件,应当在立案之日起三十日内或者公告期满后三十日内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。但审理选民资格的案件除外。

第二节 选民资格案件

第一百六十四条 【起诉与管辖】公民不服选举委员会对选民资格的申诉所作的处理决定,可以在选举日的五日以前向选区所在地基层人民法院起诉。

第一百六十五条 【审限及判决】人民法院受理选民资格案件后,必须在选举日前审结。

审理时,起诉人、选举委员会的代表和有关公民必须参加。

人民法院的判决书,应当在选举日前送达选举委员会和起诉人,并通知有关公民。

第一百六十六条 【宣告失踪】公民下落不明满二年,利害关系人申请宣告其失踪的,向下落不明人住所地基层人民法院提出。

申请书应当写明失踪的事实、时间和请求,并附有公安机关或者其他有关机关关于该公民下落不明的书面证明。

第一百六十七条 【宣告死亡】公民下落不明满四年,或者因意外事故下落不明满二年,或者因意外事故下落不明,经有关机关证明该公民不可能生存,利害关系人申请宣告其死亡的,向下落不明人住所地基层人民法院提出。

申请书应当写明下落不明的事实、时间和请求,并附有公安机关或者其他有关机关关于该公民下落不明的书面证明。

第一百六十八条 【公告与判决】人民法院受理宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件后,应当发出寻找下落不明人的公告。宣告失踪的公告期间为三个月,宣告死亡的公告期间为一年。因意外事故下落不明,经有关机关证明该公民不可能生存的,宣告死亡的公告期间为三个月。

公告期间届满,人民法院应当根据被宣告失踪、宣告死亡的事实是否得到确认,作出宣告失踪、宣告死亡的判决或者驳回申请的判决。

第一百六十九条 【判决撤销】被宣告失踪、宣告死亡的公民重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。

第四节 认定公民无民事行为能力、限制民事行为能力案件

第一百七十条 【管辖与申请书】申请认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力,由其近亲属或者其他利害关系人向该公民住所地基层人民法院提出。

申请书应当写明该公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的事实和根据。

第一百七十一条 【鉴定】人民法院受理申请后,必要时应当对被请求认定为无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的公民进行鉴定。申请人已提供鉴定结论的,应当对鉴定结论进行审查。

第一百七十二条 【代理审理与判决】人民法院审理认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的案件,应当由该公民的近亲属为代理人,但申请人除外。近亲属互相推诿的,由人民法院指定其中一人为代理人。该公民健康情况许可的,还应当询问本人的意见。

人民法院经审理认定申请有事实根据的,判决该公民为无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力人;认定申请没有事实根据的,应当判决予以驳回。

第一百七十三条 【判决撤销】人民法院根据被认定为无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人或者他的监护人的申请,证实该公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的原因已经消除的,应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。

第五节 认定财产无主案件

第一百七十四条 【管辖与申请书】申请认定财产无主,由公民、法人或者其他组织向财产所在地基层人民法院提出。

申请书应当写明财产的种类、数量以及要求认定财产无主的根据。

第一百七十五条 【公告及判决】人民法院受理申请后,经审查核实,应当发出财产认领公告。公告满一年无人认领的,判决认定财产无主,收归国家或者集体所有。

第一百七十六条 【判决撤销】判决认定财产无主后,原财产所有人或者继承人出现,在民法通则规定的诉讼时效期间可以对财产提出请求,人民法院审查属实后,应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。

第十六章 审判监督程序

第一百七十七条 【法院决定再审】各级人民法院院长对本院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现确有错误,认为需要再审的,应当提交审判委员会讨论决定。

最高人民法院对地方各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,上级人民法院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现确有错误的,有权提审或者指令下级人民法院再审。

第一百七十八条 【当事人申请再审】当事人对已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,认为有错误的,可以向上一级人民法院申请再审,但不停止判决、裁定的执行。

第一百七十九条 【再审法定原因】当事人的申请符合下列情形之一的,人民法院应当再审:

(一)有新的证据,足以推翻原判决、裁定的;

(二)原判决、裁定认定的基本事实缺乏证据证明的;

(三)原判决、裁定认定事实的主要证据是伪造的;

(四)原判决、裁定认定事实的主要证据未经质证的;

(五)对审理案件需要的证据,当事人因客观原因不能自行收集,书面申请人民法院调查收集,人民法院未调查收集的;

(六)原判决、裁定适用法律确有错误的;

(七)违反法律规定,管辖错误的;

(八)审判组织的组成不合法或者依法应当回避的审判人员没有回避的;

(九)无诉讼行为能力人未经法定代理人代为诉讼或者应当参加诉讼的当事人,因不能归责于本人或者其诉讼代理人的事由,未参加诉讼的;

(十)违反法律规定,剥夺当事人辩论权利的;

(十一)未经传票传唤,缺席判决的;

(十二)原判决、裁定遗漏或者超出诉讼请求的;

(十三)据以作出原判决、裁定的法律文书被撤销或者变更的。

对违反法定程序可能影响案件正确判决、裁定的情形,或者审判人员在审理该案件时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,人民法院应当再审。

第一百八十条 【申请再审的材料】当事人申请再审的,应当提交再审申请书等材料。人民法院应当自收到再审申请书之日起五日内将再审申请书副本发送对方当事人。对方当事人应当自收到再审申请书副本之日起十五日内提交书面意见;不提交书面意见的,不影响人民法院审查。人民法院可以要求申请人和对方当事人补充有关材料,询问有关事项。

第一百八十一条 【再审的审查与审级】人民法院应当自收到再审申请书之日起三个月内审查,符合本法第一百七十九条规定情形之一的,裁定再审;不符合本法第一百七十九条规定的,裁定驳回申请。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。

因当事人申请裁定再审的案件由中级人民法院以上的人民法院审理。最高人民法院、高级人民法院裁定再审的案件,由本院再审或者交其他人民法院再审,也可以交原审人民法院再审。

第一百八十二条 【调解书再审】当事人对已经发生法律效力的调解书,提出证据证明调解违反自愿原则或者调解协议的内容违反法律的,可以申请再审。经人民法院审查属实的,应当再审。

第一百八十三条 【离婚判决不得再审】当事人对已经发生法律效力的解除婚姻关系的判决,不得申请再审。

第一百八十四条 【申请再审期限】当事人申请再审,应当在判决、裁定发生法律效力后二年内提出;二年后据以作出原判决、裁定的法律文书被撤销或者变更,以及发现审判人员在审理该案件时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,自知道或者应当知道之日起三个月内提出。

第一百八十五条 【原裁判执行中止】按照审判监督程序决定再审的案件,裁定中止原判决的执行。裁定由院长署名,加盖人民法院印章。

第一百八十六条 【再审审理】人民法院按照审判监督程序再审的案件,发生法律效力的判决、裁定是由第一审法院作出的,按照第一审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定,当事人可以上诉;发生法律效力的判决、裁定是由第二审法院作出的,按照第二审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定,是发生法律效力的判决、裁定;上级人民法院按照审判监督程序提审的,按照第二审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定是发生法律效力的判决、裁定。

人民法院审理再审案件,应当另行组成合议庭。

第一百八十七条 【检察院抗诉】最高人民检察院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,上级人民检察院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现有本法第一百七十九条规定情形之一的,应当提出抗诉。

地方各级人民检察院对同级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现有本法第一百七十九条规定情形之一的,应当提请上级人民检察院向同级人民法院提出抗诉。

第一百八十八条 【抗诉后果】人民检察院提出抗诉的案件,接受抗诉的人民法院应当自收到抗诉书之日起三十日内作出再审的裁定;有本法第一百七十九条第一款第(一)项至第(五)项规定情形之一的,可以交下一级人民法院再审。

第一百八十九条 【抗诉书】人民检察院决定对人民法院的判决、裁定提出抗诉的,应当制作抗诉书。

第一百九十条 【检察员出庭】人民检察院提出抗诉的案件,人民法院再审时,应当通知人民检察院派员出席法庭。

第十七章 督促程序

第一百九十一条 【支付令申请】债权人请求债务人给付金钱、有价证券,符合下列条件的,可以向有管辖权的基层人民法院申请支付令:

(一)债权人与债务人没有其他债务纠纷的;

(二)支付令能够送达债务人的。

申请书应当写明请求给付金钱或者有价证券的数量和所根据的事实、证据。

第一百九十二条 【申请受理】债权人提出申请后,人民法院应当在五日内通知债权人是否受理。

第一百九十三条 【支付令发出】人民法院受理申请后,经审查债权人提供的事实、证据,对债权债务关系明确、合法的,应当在受理之日起十五日内向债务人发出支付令;申请不成立的,裁定予以驳回。

债务人应当自收到支付令之日起十五日内清偿债务,或者向人民法院提出书面异议。

债务人在前款规定的期间不提出异议又不履行支付令的,债权人可以向人民法院申请执行。

第一百九十四条 【债务人异议效力】人民法院收到债务人提出的书面异议后,应当裁定终结督促程序,支付令自行失效,债权人可以起诉。

第十八章 公示催告程序

第一百九十五条 【适用范围】按照规定可以背书转让的票据持有人,因票据被盗、遗失或者灭失,可以向票据支付地的基层人民法院申请公示催告。依照法律规定可以申请公示催告的其他事项,适用本章规定。

申请人应当向人民法院递交申请书,写明票面金额、发票人、持票人、背书人等票据主要内容和申请的理由、事实。

第一百九十六条 【公告及期限】人民法院决定受理申请,应当同时通知支付人停止支付,并在三日内发出公告,催促利害关系人申报权利。公示催告的期间,由人民法院根据情况决定,但不得少于六十日。

第一百九十七条 【止付通知及效力】支付人收到人民法院停止支付的通知,应当停止支付,至公示催告程序终结。

公示催告期间,转让票据权利的行为无效。

第一百九十八条 【申报权利】利害关系人应当在公示催告期间向人民法院申报。

人民法院收到利害关系人的申报后,应当裁定终结公示催告程序,并通知申请人和支付人。

申请人或者申报人可以向人民法院起诉。

第一百九十九条 【除权判决】没有人申报的,人民法院应当根据申请人的申请,作出判决,宣告票据无效。判决应当公告,并通知支付人。自判决公告之日起,申请人有权向支付人请求支付。

第二百条 【撤销除权判决】利害关系人因正当理由不能在判决前向人民法院申报的,自知道或者应当知道判决公告之日起一年内,可以向作出判决的人民法院起诉。

第三编 执行程序

第十九章 一般规定

第二百零一条 【执行依据及管辖】发生法律效力的民事判决、裁定,以及刑事判决、裁定中的财产部分,由第一审人民法院或者与第一审人民法院同级的被执行的财产所在地人民法院执行。

法律规定由人民法院执行的其他法律文书,由被执行人住所地或者被执行的财产所在地人民法院执行。

第二百零二条 【当事人对执行的异议】当事人、利害关系人认为执行行为违反法律规定的,可以向负责执行的人民法院提出书面异议。当事人、利害关系人提出书面异议的,人民法院应当自收到书面异议之日起十五日内审查,理由成立的,裁定撤销或者改正;理由不成立的,裁定驳回。当事人、利害关系人对裁定不服的,可以自裁定送达之日起十日内向上一级人民法院申请复议。

第二百零三条 【向上级法院申请执行】人民法院自收到申请执行书之日起超过六个月未执行的,申请执行人可以向上一级人民法院申请执行。上一级人民法院经审查,可以责令原人民法院在一定期限内执行,也可以决定由本院执行或者指令其他人民法院执行。

第二百零四条 【案外人对执行的异议】执行过程中,案外人对执行标的提出书面异议的,人民法院应当自收到书面异议之日起十五日内审查,理由成立的,裁定中止对该标的的执行;理由不成立的,裁定驳回。案外人、当事人对裁定不服,认为原判决、裁定错误的,依照审判监督程序办理;与原判决、裁定无关的,可以自裁定送达之日起十五日内向人民法院提起诉讼。

第二百零五条 【执行机构】执行工作由执行员进行。

采取强制执行措施时,执行员应当出示证件。执行完毕后,应当将执行情况制作笔录,由在场的有关人员签名或者盖章。

人民法院根据需要可以设立执行机构。

第二百零六条 【委托执行】被执行人或者被执行的财产在外地的,可以委托当地人民法院代为执行。受委托人民法院收到委托函件后,必须在十五日内开始执行,不得拒绝。执行完毕后,应当将执行结果及时函复委托人民法院;在三十日内如果还未执行完毕,也应当将执行情况函告委托人民法院。

受委托人民法院自收到委托函件之日起十五日内不执行的,委托人民法院可以请求受委托人民法院的上级人民法院指令受委托人民法院执行。

第二百零七条 【执行和解】在执行中,双方当事人自行和解达成协议的,执行员应当将协议内容记入笔录,由双方当事人签名或者盖章。

一方当事人不履行和解协议的,人民法院可以根据对方当事人的申请,恢复对原生效法律文书的执行。

第二百零八条 【执行担保】在执行中,被执行人向人民法院提供担保,并经申请执行人同意的,人民法院可以决定暂缓执行及暂缓执行的期限。被执行人逾期仍不履行的,人民法院有权执行被执行人的担保财产或者担保人的财产。

第二百零九条 【执行承担】作为被执行人的公民死亡的,以其遗产偿还债务。作为被执行人的法人或者其他组织终止的,由其权利义务承受人履行义务。

第二百一十条 【执行回转】执行完毕后,据以执行的判决、裁定和其他法律文书确有错误,被人民法院撤销的,对已被执行的财产,人民法院应当作出裁定,责令取得财产的人返还;拒不返还的,强制执行。

第二百一十一条 【调解书执行】人民法院制作的调解书的执行,适用本编的规定。

第二十章 执行的申请和移送

第二百一十二条 【执行开始方式】发生法律效力的民事判决、裁定,当事人必须履行。一方拒绝履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行,也可以由审判员移送执行员执行。

调解书和其他应当由人民法院执行的法律文书,当事人必须履行。一方拒绝履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行。

第二百一十三条 【仲裁裁决执行】对依法设立的仲裁机构的裁决,一方当事人不履行的,对方当事人可以向有管辖权的人民法院申请执行。受申请的人民法院应当执行。

被申请人提出证据证明仲裁裁决有下列情形之一的,经人民法院组成合议庭审查核实,裁定不予执行:

(一)当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的;

(二)裁决的事项不属于仲裁协议的范围或者仲裁机构无权仲裁的;

(三)仲裁庭的组成或者仲裁的程序违反法定程序的;

(四)认定事实的主要证据不足的;

(五)适用法律确有错误的;

(六)仲裁员在仲裁该案时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁决行为的。

人民法院认定执行该裁决违背社会公共利益的,裁定不予执行。

裁定书应当送达双方当事人和仲裁机构。

仲裁裁决被人民法院裁定不予执行的,当事人可以根据双方达成的书面仲裁协议重新申请仲裁,也可以向人民法院起诉。

第二百一十四条 【公证债权文书执行】对公证机关依法赋予强制执行效力的债权文书,一方当事人不履行的,对方当事人可以向有管辖权的人民法院申请执行,受申请的人民法院应当执行。

公证债权文书确有错误的,人民法院裁定不予执行,并将裁定书送达双方当事人和公证机关。

第二百一十五条 【申请执行期限】申请执行的期间为二年。申请执行时效的中止、中断,适用法律有关诉讼时效中止、中断的规定。

前款规定的期间,从法律文书规定履行期间的最后一日起计算;法律文书规定分期履行的,从规定的每次履行期间的最后一日起计算;法律文书未规定履行期间的,从法律文书生效之日起计算。

第二百一十六条 【执行通知与强制执行】执行员接到申请执行书或者移交执行书,应当向被执行人发出执行通知,责令其在指定的期间履行,逾期不履行的,强制执行。

被执行人不履行法律文书确定的义务,并有可能隐匿、转移财产的,执行员可以立即采取强制执行措施。

第二十一章 执行措施

第二百一十七条 【被执行人的报告义务】被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,应当报告当前以及收到执行通知之日前一年的财产情况。被执行人拒绝报告或者虚假报告的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重对被执行人或者其法定代理人、有关单位的主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款、拘留。

第二百一十八条 【查询、划拨、冻结存款】被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权向银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位查询被执行人的存款情况,有权冻结、划拨被执行人的存款,但查询、冻结、划拨存款不得超出被执行人应当履行义务的范围。

人民法院决定冻结、划拨存款,应当作出裁定,并发出协助执行通知书,银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位必须办理。

第二百一十九条 【扣留提取收入】被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权扣留、提取被执行人应当履行义务部分的收入。但应当保留被执行人及其所扶养家属的生活必需费用。

人民法院扣留、提取收入时,应当作出裁定,并发出协助执行通知书,被执行人所在单位、银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位必须办理。

第二百二十条 【查扣、冻结、拍卖、变卖】被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权查封、扣押、冻结、拍卖、变卖被执行人应当履行义务部分的财产。但应当保留被执行人及其所扶养家属的生活必需品。

采取前款措施,人民法院应当作出裁定。

第二百二十一条 【查扣程序】人民法院查封、扣押财产时,被执行人是公民的,应当通知被执行人或者他的成年家属到场;被执行人是法人或者其他组织的,应当通知其法定代表人或者主要负责人到场。拒不到场的,不影响执行。被执行人是公民的,其工作单位或者财产所在地的基层组织应当派人参加。

对被查封、扣押的财产,执行员必须造具清单,由在场人签名或者盖章后,交被执行人一份。被执行人是公民的,也可以交他的成年家属一份。

第二百二十二条 【查封财产保管】被查封的财产,执行员可以指定被执行人负责保管。因被执行人的过错造成的损失,由被执行人承担。

第二百二十三条 【拍、变卖措施】财产被查封、扣押后,执行员应当责令被执行人在指定期间履行法律文书确定的义务。被执行人逾期不履行的,人民法院可以按照规定交有关单位拍卖或者变卖被查封、扣押的财产。国家禁止自由买卖的物品,交有关单位按照国家规定的价格收购。

第二百二十四条 【搜查措施】被执行人不履行法律文书确定的义务,并隐匿财产的,人民法院有权发出搜查令,对被执行人及其住所或者财产隐匿地进行搜查。

采取前款措施,由院长签发搜查令。

第二百二十五条 【指定交付】法律文书指定交付的财物或者票证,由执行员传唤双方当事人当面交付,或者由执行员转交,并由被交付人签收。

有关单位持有该项财物或者票证的,应当根据人民法院的协助执行通知书转交,并由被交付人签收。

有关公民持有该项财物或者票证的,人民法院通知其交出。拒不交出的,强制执行。

第二百二十六条 【强制迁出】强制迁出房屋或者强制退出土地,由院长签发公告,责令被执行人在指定期间履行。被执行人逾期不履行的,由执行员强制执行。

强制执行时,被执行人是公民的,应当通知被执行人或者他的成年家属到场;被执行人是法人或者其他组织的,应当通知其法定代表人或者主要负责人到场。拒不到场的,不影响执行。被执行人是公民的,其工作单位或者房屋、土地所在地的基层组织应当派人参加。执行员应当将强制执行情况记入笔录,由在场人签名或者盖章。

强制迁出房屋被搬出的财物,由人民法院派人运至指定处所,交给被执行人。被执行人是公民的,也可以交给他的成年家属。因拒绝接收而造成的损失,由被执行人承担。

第二百二十七条 【证照转移】在执行中,需要办理有关财产权证照转移手续的,人民法院可以向有关单位发出协助执行通知书,有关单位必须办理。

第二百二十八条 【对行为执行】对判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的行为,被执行人未按执行通知履行的,人民法院可以强制执行或者委托有关单位或者其他人完成,费用由被执行人承担。

第二百二十九条 【迟延履行】被执行人未按判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的期间履行给付金钱义务的,应当加倍支付迟延履行期间的债务利息。被执行人未按判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的期间履行其他义务的,应当支付迟延履行金。

第二百三十条 【继续执行】人民法院采取本法第二百一十八条、第二百一十九条、第二百二十条规定的执行措施后,被执行人仍不能偿还债务的,应当继续履行义务。债权人发现被执行人有其他财产的,可以随时请求人民法院执行。

第二百三十一条 【被执行人不履行义务的后果】被执行人不履行法律文书确定的义务的,人民法院可以对其采取或者通知有关单位协助采取限制出境,在征信系统记录、通过媒体公布不履行义务信息以及法律规定的其他措施。

第二十二章 执行中止和终结

第二百三十二条 【执行中止】有下列情形之一的,人民法院应当裁定中止执行:

(一)申请人表示可以延期执行的;

(二)案外人对执行标的提出确有理由的异议的;

(三)作为一方当事人的公民死亡,需要等待继承人继承权利或者承担义务的;

(四)作为一方当事人的法人或者其他组织终止,尚未确定权利义务承受人的;

(五)人民法院认为应当中止执行的其他情形。

中止的情形消失后,恢复执行。

第二百三十三条 【执行终结】有下列情形之一的,人民法院裁定终结执行:

(一)申请人撤销申请的;

(二)据以执行的法律文书被撤销的;

(三)作为被执行人的公民死亡,无遗产可供执行,又无义务承担人的;

(四)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费案件的权利人死亡的;

(五)作为被执行人的公民因生活困难无力偿还借款,无收入来源,又丧失劳动能力的;

(六)人民法院认为应当终结执行的其他情形。

第二百三十四条 【中止、终结裁定】中止和终结执行的裁定,送达当事人后立即生效。

第四编 涉外民事诉讼程序的特别规定

第二十三章 一般原则

第二百三十五条 【适用本法】在中华人民共和国领域内进行涉外民事诉讼,适用本编规定。本编没有规定的,适用本法其他有关规定。

第二百三十六条 【国际条约优先】中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用该国际条约的规定,但中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。

第二百三十七条 【外交特权与豁免】对享有外交特权与豁免的外国人、外国组织或者国际组织提起的民事诉讼,应当依照中华人民共和国有关法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定办理。

第二百三十八条 【语言文字】人民法院审理涉外民事案件,应当使用中华人民共和国通用的语言、文字。当事人要求提供翻译的,可以提供,费用由当事人承担。

第二百三十九条 【中国律师代理】外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,需要委托律师代理诉讼的,必须委托中华人民共和国的律师。

第二百四十条 【公证和认证】在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织委托中华人民共和国律师或者其他人代理诉讼,从中华人民共和国领域外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,应当经所在国公证机关证明,并经中华人民共和国驻该国使领馆认证,或者履行中华人民共和国与该所在国订立的有关条约中规定的证明手续后,才具有效力。

第二十四章 管辖

第二百四十一条 【特殊地域管辖】因合同纠纷或者其他财产权益纠纷,对在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的被告提起的诉讼,如果合同在中华人民共和国领域内签订或者履行,或者诉讼标的物在中华人民共和国领域内,或者被告在中华人民共和国领域内有可供扣押的财产,或者被告在中华人民共和国领域内设有代表机构,可以由合同签订地、合同履行地、诉讼标的物所在地、可供扣押财产所在地、侵权行为地或者代表机构住所地人民法院管辖。

第二百四十二条 【协议管辖】涉外合同或者涉外财产权益纠纷的当事人,可以用书面协议选择与争议有实际联系的地点的法院管辖。选择中华人民共和国人民法院管辖的,不得违反本法关于级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。

第二百四十三条 【默示管辖】涉外民事诉讼的被告对人民法院管辖不提出异议,并应诉答辩的,视为承认该人民法院为有管辖权的法院。

第二百四十四条 【专属管辖】因在中华人民共和国履行中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由中华人民共和国人民法院管辖。

第二十五章 送达、期间

第二百四十五条 【送达方式】人民法院对在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的当事人送达诉讼文书,可以采用下列方式:

(一)依照受送达人所在国与中华人民共和国缔结或者共同参加的国际条约中规定的方式送达;

(二)通过外交途径送达;

(三)对具有中华人民共和国国籍的受送达人,可以委托中华人民共和国驻受送达人所在国的使领馆代为送达;

(四)向受送达人委托的有权代其接受送达的诉讼代理人送达;

(五)向受送达人在中华人民共和国领域内设立的代表机构或者有权接受送达的分支机构、业务代办人送达;

(六)受送达人所在国的法律允许邮寄送达的,可以邮寄送达,自邮寄之日起满六个月,送达回证没有退回,但根据各种情况足以认定已经送达的,期间届满之日视为送达;

(七)不能用上述方式送达的,公告送达,自公告之日起满六个月,即视为送达。

第二百四十六条 【答辩期间】被告在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的,人民法院应当将起诉状副本送达被告,并通知被告在收到起诉状副本后三十日内提出答辩状。被告申请延期的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第二百四十七条 【上诉期间】在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的当事人,不服第一审人民法院判决、裁定的,有权在判决书、裁定书送达之日起三十日内提起上诉。被上诉人在收到上诉状副本后,应当在三十日内提出答辩状。当事人不能在法定期间提起上诉或者提出答辩状,申请延期的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第二百四十八条 【特别规定】人民法院审理涉外民事案件的期间,不受本法第一百三十五条、第一百五十九条规定的限制。

第二十六章 财产保全

第二百四十九条 【保全申请】当事人依照本法第九十二条的规定可以向人民法院申请财产保全。

利害关系人依照本法第九十三条的规定可以在起诉前向人民法院申请财产保全。

第二百五十条 【诉前保全】人民法院裁定准许诉前财产保全后,申请人应当在三十日内提起诉讼。逾期不起诉的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第二百五十一条 【保全解除】人民法院裁定准许财产保全后,被申请人提供担保的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第二百五十二条 【保全错误赔偿】申请有错误的,申请人应当赔偿被申请人因财产保全所遭受的损失。

第二百五十三条 【保全财产监督】人民法院决定保全的财产需要监督的,应当通知有关单位负责监督,费用由被申请人承担。

第二百五十四条 【解除保全执行】人民法院解除保全的命令由执行员执行。

第二十七章 仲裁

第二百五十五条 【纠纷解决方式】涉外经济贸易、运输和海事中发生的纠纷,当事人在合同中订有仲裁条款或者事后达成书面仲裁协议,提交中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构仲裁的,当事人不得向人民法院起诉。

当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的,可以向人民法院起诉。

第二百五十六条 【财产保全】当事人申请采取财产保全的,中华人民共和国的涉外仲裁机构应当将当事人的申请,提交被申请人住所地或者财产所在地的中级人民法院裁定。

第二百五十七条 【仲裁裁决执行】经中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构裁决的,当事人不得向人民法院起诉。一方当事人不履行仲裁裁决的,对方当事人可以向被申请人住所地或者财产所在地的中级人民法院申请执行。

第二百五十八条 【不予执行情形】对中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构作出的裁决,被申请人提出证据证明仲裁裁决有下列情形之一的,经人民法院组成合议庭审查核实,裁定不予执行:

(一)当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的;

(二)被申请人没有得到指定仲裁员或者进行仲裁程序的通知,或者由于其他不属于被申请人负责的原因未能陈述意见的;

(三)仲裁庭的组成或者仲裁的程序与仲裁规则不符的;

(四)裁决的事项不属于仲裁协议的范围或者仲裁机构无权仲裁的。

人民法院认定执行该裁决违背社会公共利益的,裁定不予执行。

第二百五十九条 【不予执行后果】仲裁裁决被人民法院裁定不予执行的,当事人可以根据双方达成的书面仲裁协议重新申请仲裁,也可以向人民法院起诉。

第二十八章 司法协助

第二百六十条 【协助原则】根据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则,人民法院和外国法院可以相互请求,代为送达文书、调查取证以及进行其他诉讼行为。

外国法院请求协助的事项有损于中华人民共和国的主权、安全或者社会公共利益的,人民法院不予执行。

第二百六十一条 【协助途径】请求和提供司法协助,应当依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的途径进行;没有条约关系的,通过外交途径进行。

外国驻中华人民共和国的使领馆可以向该国公民送达文书和调查取证,但不得违反中华人民共和国的法律,并不得采取强制措施。

除前款规定的情况外,未经中华人民共和国主管机关准许,任何外国机关或者个人不得在中华人民共和国领域内送达文书、调查取证。

第二百六十二条 【文字要求】外国法院请求人民法院提供司法协助的请求书及其所附文件,应当附有中文译本或者国际条约规定的其他文字文本。

人民法院请求外国法院提供司法协助的请求书及其所附文件,应当附有该国文字译本或者国际条约规定的其他文字文本。

第二百六十三条 【协助程序】人民法院提供司法协助,依照中华人民共和国法律规定的程序进行。外国法院请求采用特殊方式的,也可以按照其请求的特殊方式进行,但请求采用的特殊方式不得违反中华人民共和国法律。

第二百六十四条 【申请外国承认执行】人民法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,如果被执行人或者其财产不在中华人民共和国领域内,当事人请求执行的,可以由当事人直接向有管辖权的外国法院申请承认和执行,也可以由人民法院依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定,或者按照互惠原则,请求外国法院承认和执行。

中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构作出的发生法律效力的仲裁裁决,当事人请求执行的,如果被执行人或者其财产不在中华人民共和国领域内,应当由当事人直接向有管辖权的外国法院申请承认和执行。

第二百六十五条 【外国申请承认执行】外国法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,需要中华人民共和国人民法院承认和执行的,可以由当事人直接向中华人民共和国有管辖权的中级人民法院申请承认和执行,也可以由外国法院依照该国与中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定,或者按照互惠原则,请求人民法院承认和执行。

第二百六十六条 【外国裁判承认执行】人民法院对申请或者请求承认和执行的外国法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则进行审查后,认为不违反中华人民共和国法律的基本原则或者国家主权、安全、社会公共利益的,裁定承认其效力,需要执行的,发出执行令,依照本法的有关规定执行。违反中华人民共和国法律的基本原则或者国家主权、安全、社会公共利益的,不予承认和执行。

第二百六十七条 【国外裁决承认执行】国外仲裁机构的裁决,需要中华人民共和国人民法院承认和执行的,应当由当事人直接向被执行人住所地或者其财产所在地的中级人民法院申请,人民法院应当依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则办理。

第二百六十八条 【生效日期】本法自公布之日起施行,《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法(试行)(试行)》同时废止。